Emilio Aguinaldo (President of the Independent Philippine Republic)

From "To the Philippine People" in Major-General E.S. Otis, Report of Military Operations and Civil Affairs in the Philippine Islands, 1899 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899), 95-96.

R. . . I published the grievances suffered by the Philippine forces at the hand of the [U.S] army of occupation. The constant outrages and taunts, which have caused misery of the people of Manila, and, finally, the useless conferences and the contempt shown the Philippine government prove the premeditated transgression of justice and liberty. . . . I have tried to avoid, as far as it has been possible for me to do so, armed conflict, in my endeavors to assure our independence by pacific means and to avoid more costly sacrifices. But all my efforts have been useless against the measureless pride of the American government. . .


Reprinted in D. Schirmer and S.R. Shalom (eds.), The Philippines Reader (Boston: South End Press, 1987), 20-21.