A word on grading the midterm: I grade the exam like a paper. Rather than assigning numerical points for each answer, I grade the exam as a unit, give a letter grade, and provide a longer typed comment at the end in which I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each answer as well as the exam as a whole. This approach is time-consuming, but makes the connection between the midterm and the paper more clear by emphasizing the acquisition of historical skills and not just information.