The “Monroe Doctrine” of 1823 warned European powers to stay out of Latin America, including Central America, which had a particular importance to the United States because of its proximity. By the early 20th century, U.S. companies dominated the economies of Central American republics, including Nicaragua, controlling most of the banana production, railroads, port facilities, mines, and banking institutions. The United States intervened in Nicaragua repeatedly to protect U.S. economic interests. In 1912 U.S. marines landed once again to maintain a pro-American government; this occupation lasted until 1925. Augusto César Sandino, a nationalist and leader of Nicaraguan peasants and workers, refused to accept the U.S.-sponsored peace treaty that kept U.S. influence and economic power intact. He organized an army of peasants, workers, and Indians to resist thousands of U.S. marines and the U.S.-trained Nicaraguan National Guard. Sandino’s 1933 proclamation called upon all the nations of Central America to oppose U.S. imperialism. From 1927 to 1933 Sandino waged a successful guerrilla war against the United States with support from Mexican and other Latin American anti-imperialists.
Well then, deeply convinced that the grotesque yankee imperialism, day by day is infiltrating the domestic and foreign policy of Central America, turning our cowardly leaders into mummies—the vibrating spirit of the Indohispanic race becomes at this time the Autonomist Army of Central America to save its racial dignity, flinging militarily, politically and economically away from its territory the Wall Street bankers, even if to do this we will have to leave our bodies dead, lying face up towards the sun.
The Autonomist Army of Central America declares abolished the farsical Monroe Doctrine and by the same declaration annuls the right that said doctrine pretends to have to enmesh itself cowardly in the political life, domestic and foreign, of the Indo-hispanic republics.
We do not protest against the magnitude of the intervention, but simply against intervention. The United States has gotten into the affairs of Nicaragua for many years. We cannot rely on their promise that someday they will leave from here.
Source: To Abolish the Monroe Doctrine: Proclamation from Augusto César Sandino, Nicaragua National Archives.