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American Memory: Historical Collections for the National Digital Library Library of Congress, American Memory. This expansive archive of American history and culture features photographs, prints, motion pictures, manuscripts, printed books, pamphlets, maps, and sound recordings going back to roughly 1490. Currently this site includes more than 9 million digital items from more than 100 collections on subjects ranging from African-American political pamphlets to California folk music, from baseball to the Civil War. Most topical sites include special presentations introducing particular depositories or providing historical context for archival materials. Visitors can search collections separately or all at once by keyword and type of source (photos and prints, documents, films, sound recordings, or maps). In addition, the Learning Page provides well-organized help for using the collections, including sample teaching assignments. WWW.History includes individual annotations for many of the current collections. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO, VIDEO. Website last visited on 2008-10-06.
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. See JAH web review by Jeffrey Shandler. Reviewed 2012-03-01. Introduces the activities of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, located in Washington, DC, and its important collections, in addition to presenting interactive exhibitions and providing resources for study of the Holocaust and related subjects. The site is composed of five sections: education, research, history, remembrance, and conscience. The education section includes material to introduce the subject of the Holocaust to middle- and secondary-level students; the full text of a resource book for teachers; information on publications, programs, fellowships, and internships for scholars, faculty, and university students; and 45 bibliographies arranged by country. The research section contains a survivors registry; material about the Museum’s Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies; an international directory of activities relating to Holocaust-era assets; information on the Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research; searchable catalogs pertaining to the Museum’s collections and library; and examples of artworks, artifacts, documents, photographs, films, videos, oral histories, and music. The history section includes the Holocaust Learning Center, with images, essays, and documents on 75 subjects such as anti-semitism, refugees, pogroms, extermination camps, and resistance. The remembrance section provides material on a recent commemorative ceremony undertaken by high school students from Germany, Luxembourg, Washington, D.C., and communities in the U.S. in which churches had been burned. The final section, devoted to the “Committee on Conscience” contains information on current genocidal practices in Sudan. An invaluable site for students as an introduction to Holocaust-related subjects, for scholars as a resource for further studies, and for others as a way to acknowledge the presence of the Holocaust in contemporary culture. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO, VIDEO. Website last visited on 2007-10-12.
New Deal Network Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute and Institute for Learning Technologies, Teachers College, Columbia University. See JAH web review by Charles Forcey. Reviewed 2002-03-01. A database of more than 20,000 items relating to the New Deal. A “Document Library” contains more than 900 newspaper and journal articles, speeches, letters, reports, advertisements, and other textual materials, treating a broad array of subjects relevant to the period’s social, cultural, political, and economic history, while placing special emphasis on New Deal relief agencies and issues relating to labor, education, agriculture, the Supreme Court, and African Americans. The “Photo Gallery” of more than 5,000 images is organized into five units—“Culture,” “Construction,” “Social Programs,” “Federal Agencies,” and miscellaneous, including photos from 11 exhibitions and five series of photoessays, and images of disaster relief and public figures. The site additionally offers featured exhibits, many with lesson plan suggestions. Presently, the features section includes “The Magpie Sings the Depression,” a collection of 193 poems, articles, and short stories, and 275 graphics from a Bronx high school journal published between 1929 and 1941 with juvenile works by novelist James Baldwin, photographer Richard Avedon, cultural critic Robert Warshow, and film critic Stanley Kauffmann; “Dear Mrs Roosevelt” with selected letters written by young people to the first lady; “Student Activism in the 1930s,” which contains 38 photographs, graphics, and editorial cartoons, 12 American Student Union memoirs, 40 autobiographical essays, and a 20,000-word essay by Robert Cohen on 1930s campus radicalism; 17 selected interviews from American slave narratives gathered by the Works Progress Administration; and an illustrated essay on the history and social effects of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Includes approximately 100 annotated links to related sites. Of great value for teachers, students, and researchers interested in the social history of the New Deal era. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2007-10-18.
Oyez: U.S. Supreme Court Multimedia Jerry Goldman, Northwestern University. See JAH web review by Melvin I. Urofsky. Reviewed 2001-09-01. Features audio files, abstracts, transcriptions of oral arguments, and written opinions on more than 3,300 Supreme Court cases. Includes more than 3,000 hours of audio of arguments in selected cases going back to 1955 and all cases since 1995. Users can access cases through keyword searches or a list of 13 broad categories, including civil rights, due process, first amendment, judicial power, privacy, and unions. Also provides easy access to the 20 “most popular cases”—such as Roe v. Wade (abortion), Gideon v. Wainwright (right to counsel), Plessy v. Ferguson (segregation), Grutter v. Bollinger (racial preferences in school admissions decisions), and Bush v. Gore— determined by numbers of hits to the site. Also offers images and biographical outlines for every justice who has served on the Court. “The Pending Docket” provides briefs of pending cases, along with links to relevant opinions; additional material on selected cases; a summary highlighting cases decided in the previous session with a breakdown of the voting of individual justices; and a forum for discussions of selected recent cases. The site also includes a “virtual tour” of the Court building; links to all the written opinions of the Court since 1893; and audio of speeches by a handful of justices. Of great value for those practicing law and studying its history. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO. Website last visited on 2007-10-18.
Digital History Steven Mintz and Sara McNeil. See JAH web review by Simon Appleford and Vernon Burton. Reviewed 2008-03-01. Provides multimedia resources and links for teaching American history and conducting basic research, while focusing on slavery, ethnic history, private life, technological achievement, and American film. Presents more than 600 documents pertaining to American politics, diplomacy, social history, slavery, Mexican American history, and Native American history, searchable by author, time period, subject, and keyword, and annotated with essays of 300–500 words each. The site offers a full U.S. history textbook and more than 1,500 searchable and briefly annotated links to American history-related sites, including approximately 150 links to historic Supreme Court decisions, 330 links to audio files of historic speeches, and more than 450 links to audio files and transcripts of historians discussing their own books. Also includes five high school lesson plans; 39 fact sheets with quotations and study questions on major historical topics; 10 essays (800 words) on past controversies, such as the Vietnam War, socialism, and the war on poverty; seven essays presenting historical background on more recent controversies, such as hostage crises and NATO in Kosovo; and essays of more than 10,000 words each on the history of American film and private life in America. Four current exhibits offer 217 photographs, ca. 1896–1903, from the Calhoun Industrial School in Alabama, a freedmen’s school; 19 watercolor sketches by a Civil War soldier; seven letters between 18th-century English historian Catharine Macaulay and American historian Mercy Otis Warren; and an 1865 letter from Frederick Douglass to Mary Todd Lincoln. A valuable site for high school students and teachers looking for comprehensive guidance from professional historians on the current state of debate on many topics in American history. Resources Available: IMAGES. Website last visited on 2008-10-06.
Ad*Access Digital Scriptorium, Duke University. See JAH web review by Kelly Schrum. Reviewed 2001-09-01. This well-developed, easily navigated site presents images and database information for more than 7,000 advertisements printed primarily in the United States from 1911 to 1955. Material is drawn from the J. Walter Thompson Company Competitive Advertisements Collection of the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising, and Marketing History at Duke University. The advertisements are divided into 5 main subjects areas: Radio (including radios, radio parts, and radio programs); Television (including television sets and programs); Transportation (including airlines, rental cars, buses, trains, and ships); Beauty and Hygiene (including cosmetics, soaps, and shaving supplies); and World War II (U.S. Government ads, such as V-mail or bond drives). The ads are searchable by keyword, type of illustration, and special features. A timeline from 1915 to 1955 provides general context for the ads with a chronology of major events. “About Ad Access” provides an overview of advertising history and the Duke collection, as well as a bibliography and list of advertising repositories in the U.S. Excellent archive of primary documents for students of consumer and popular culture.
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Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2007-10-10.
Famous Trials Douglas Linder, Professor of Law, University of Missouri, Kansas City. See JAH web review by Jerry Goldman. Reviewed 2001-09-01. Law professor Douglas Linder created this exceptional legal history site. It includes fascinating treatments of over 50 of the most prominent court trials in American history, including: Scopes “Monkey” Trial (1925); Rosenberg Trial (1951); Leopold and Loeb Trial (1924); Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692); Scottsboro Trials (1931–1937); Bill Haywood Trial (1907); My Lai Courts Martial (1970); Nuremberg Trials (1945–49); Dakota Conflict Trials (1862); Mississippi Burning Trial (1967); Chicago Seven Conspiracy (1969–70); Johnson Impeachment Trial (1868); O.J. Simpson Trial (1995); The Three Trials of Oscar Wilde (1895); Hauptmann (Lindbergh) Trial (1935); Sweet Trials (1925–1926); Amistad Trials (1839–1840); Sheriff Shipp Trial (1907–1909); Susan B. Anthony Trial (1873); the Sacco and Vanzetti Trial (1921); Clinton Impeachment Trial (1999); Moussaoui 9/11 Trial (2006); and the Black Sox Trial (1921). Most trial pages include a 750–1000-word essay on the historical background of the case, links to biographies (roughly 500 words) of key figures in the trials, and approximately 15–25 primary documents related to each trial, including transcripts of testimony, media coverage, depositions, and government documents. Cases also contain images, links to related websites, and a bibliography of scholarly works. There are also links to biographies of 5 “trial heroes,” including famous trial lawyer Clarence Darrow, and a “Exploring Constitutional Law” site that offers 83 important constitutional topics for class discussion, such as gay rights, student searches, and the electoral college debates. Each topic includes a 250–300-word introduction to the issue and links to roughly ten related primary documents and court opinions. These topics are designed for classroom use and include issue questions for discussion. Another link explores the Supreme Court and includes items such as biographies of past and present justices, a virtual tour of the Supreme Court building, and a term calendar. Three interactive learning sites on the Bill of Rights, the Constitution, and the Founding Fathers are also offered. This exceptional site can serve as a valuable resource for studying many aspects of legal and constitutional history.
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Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2007-10-11.
Remembering Jim Crow American RadioWorks. See JAH web review by Joseph Crespino. Reviewed 2003-09-01. A companion site to the NPR radio documentary on segregated life in the South (broadcast in February 2002). Presents 30 audio excerpts, ranging from one minute to ten minutes in length, and approximately 130 photographs, arranged in six thematically-organized sections. Covers legal, social, and cultural aspects of segregation, black community life, and black resistance to the Jim Crow way of life. As anthropologist Kate Ellis, one of the site’s creators, notes, the interviews display a “marked contrast between African American and white reflections on Jim Crow.” Many of the photographs come from personal collections of the people interviewed. The site also includes 16 photographs taken by Farm Security Administration photographer Russell Lee in New Iberia, Louisiana. The site provides audio files and transcripts of the original radio documentary, more than 90 additional stories, a sampling of state segregation laws arranged by topic, links to 9 related sites, and a 41-title bibliography. The project creators—Ellis and personnel from American RadioWorks, the Minnesota Public Radio documentary producers—used interviews selected from more than 1,000 oral histories compiled by Duke University’s “Behind the Veil” project, in addition to conducting new interviews. The short 100-word introductions to each section succinctly provide a contextual framework to the documentary material. Valuable for those studying the American South, race relations, and African American history. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO. Website last visited on 2007-09-19.
The Wizard of Oz: An American Fairy Tale Library of Congress. This well-designed exhibit is composed of three galleries focused on the cultural impact of L. Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Each gallery contains multiple panels with one or more images and explanatory text. “‘To Please a Child’: L. Frank Baum and the Land of Oz” uses 16 panels to examine various aspects of the book, including W.W. Denslow’s artwork, Baum’s original copyright application, and an early review of the book appearing in the October 1900 issue of The Literary Review. “To See the Wizard: Oz on Stage and Film” uses 21 panels to look at 2 of the most famous productions of Baum’s book, the 1902–1903 stage play that became one of Broadway’s greatest successes and the classic 1939 MGM movie. The panels on the stage play include 2 color posters published in 1903 to promote the show and the 16 panels on MGM’s version examine the cast, production, and music, including a full-page color advertisement placed in the September 1939 issue of Cosmopolitan. “To Own the Wizard: Oz Artifacts,” with 18 panels, examines the varieties of Oz-related novelties that have appeared over the years, including The Wizard of Oz Monopoly game by Hasbro, a Wizard of Oz stamp, and “The Royal Bank of Oz” rebate check from MGM. This exhibit is of interest to anyone studying popular culture or the history of the arts in 20th-century America. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2007-09-24.
Studs Terkel: Conversations with America Chicago Historical Society . See JAH web review by Clifford M. Kuhn. Reviewed 2004-09-01. Part of the digital repository, Historical Voices, this site was created in honor of Studs Terkel, the noted oral historian, radio host of “The Studs Terkel Program,” and Pulitzer Prize-winning author. Dedicated to making Terkel’s 50 years of work available, it presents material pulled from approximately 5,000 hours of sound recordings. The seven galleries—The Studs Terkel Program; Division Street: America; Hard Times; The Good War; Race; Talking to Myself; and Greatest Hits—center on the extensive interviews Terkel completed for the radio show and his books and contain more than 400 audio clips of interviews. Most of the interviews are about 15 minutes in length and explore diverse subjects, including Chicago architecture, urban landscape, immigrants, street life, the 1929 stock market crash, organized labor, New Deal programs, race relations, and integration. Interviewees include Chicago architect Frank Lloyd Wright and labor activist Cesar Chavez as well as men and women on a train to Washington D.C. for the 1963 Civil Rights March. Sound recordings are searchable by date, keyword, or author. Complementing this site is an educational section intended to help students and teachers use oral history in the classroom and a 55-minute interview with Terkel. This well-designed site offers a rich history of many influential, as well as lesser-known, personalities living in the second half of the 20th century and is beneficial to anyone interested in the Great Depression, World War II, race relations, and labor issues. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO, VIDEO. Website last visited on 2007-09-24.
American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936–1940 American Memory, Library of Congress. See JAH web review by Thomas Thurston. Reviewed 2001-09-01. Approximately 2,900 life histories from 1936–1940 compiled and transcribed as part of the Federal Writers' Project for the U.S. Works Progress (later Work Projects) Administration (WPA)are featured on this site. Documents represent the work of more than 300 writers from 24 states. The histories, in the form of drafts and revisions, vary from narrative to dialog, report, or case history. A typical history describes an informant’s family, education, income, occupation, political views, religion and mores, medical needs, diet, and other observations on society and culture. Interviewers often substituted pseudonyms for names of individuals and places. The Special Presentation, “Voices from the Thirties”—adapted in part from the book First Person America by Ann Banks and illustrated with photographs of the Project’s staff at work, interviewees, and their environments—provides the context for the creation of the Life Histories Collection and includes excerpts from sample interviews. Visitors can select a particular U.S. state or search the archive by keyword. Life histories are presented in facsimiles of original interview documents and as searchable text. This multifaceted collection provides materials for teaching subjects such as slavery and 19th-century American folk cultures as well as social history of the Great Depression. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2007-09-25.
America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935–1945 American Memory, Library of Congress. More than 160,000 images taken by government photographers with the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and the Office of War Information (OWI) during the New Deal and World War II eras are featured on this site. These images document the ravages of the Great Depression on farmers, scenes of everyday life in small towns and cities, and, in later years, mobilization campaigns for World War II. This site includes approximately 1,600 color photographs and selections from 2 extremely popular collections: “’Migrant Mother’ Photographs” and “Photographs of Signs Enforcing Racial Discrimination.” The site also provides a bibliography, a background essay of about 500 words, seven short biographical sketches of FSA-OWI photographers, links to 7 related sites, and 3 essays on cataloging and digitizing the collection. The photographs are searchable by keyword and arranged into a subject index. Resources Available: IMAGES. Website last visited on 2007-10-01.
California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties American Memory, Library of Congress. This site features 35 hours of folk and popular music sound recordings from several European, Slavic, Middle Eastern, and English- and Spanish-speaking communities. The Work Projects Administration California Folk Music Project collected these 817 songs, in 12 languages and representing 185 musicians, in Northern California between 1938 and 1940. The collection also includes 168 photographs of musicians, 45 scale drawings and sketches of instruments, and numerous written documents, including ethnographic field reports and notes, song transcriptions, published articles, and project correspondence. Organized by folk music collector Sidney Robertson Cowell, sponsored by the University of California, Berkeley, and cosponsored by the Archive of the American Folk Song, this was one of the earliest ethnographic field projects to document folk and popular music of such diverse origin in one region. In addition to folk music of indigenous and immigrant groups, the collection includes popular songs from the Gold Rush and Barbary Coast eras, medicine show tunes, and ragtime numbers. In addition, short essays describe the California Folk Music Project and the ethnographic work of Sidney Robertson Cowell. This collection is an excellent resource for learning about ethnographic research practices as well as about cultures of various California ethnic groups. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO. Website last visited on 2008-10-14.
Architecture and Interior Design for 20th-Century America: Photographs by Samuel Gottscho and William Schleisner, 1935–1955 American Memory, Library of Congress. A photo archive of more than 29,000 images, produced by architectural photographers Samuel Gottscho and William Schleisner. Gottscho and Schleisner were commissioned to document the work of architects, sculptors, and artists for individuals and institutional clients, such as House Beautiful and House and Garden magazines. The collection specializes in views taken primarily in the northeastern United States—many in the New York City area—and in Florida. Subjects include homes, stores, offices, factories, and historic buildings. Also of note are 100 color images of the 1939–1940 New York World’s Fair. As the introductory text points out, the assembled group of photographs can "serve as a document of social change from a particular vantage point of the middle and upper classes of society." Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2003-11-10.
Creative Americans: Portraits by Carl Van Vechten, 1932–1964 American Memory, Library of Congress. This collection presents 1,395 photographs by the American photographer, music and dance critic, and novelist Carl Van Vechten (1880–1964). The site consists primarily of studio portraits of celebrities, most of whom were involved in the arts, including actors, such as Marlon Brando and Paul Robeson; artists, such as Marc Chagall and Frida Kahlo; novelists, such as Theodore Dreiser and Willa Cather; singers, such as Ethel Waters and Billie Holiday; publishers, such as Alfred A. Knopf and Bennett Cerf; cultural critics, such as H. L. Mencken and Gilbert Seldes; and figures from the Harlem Renaissance, such as Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Zora Neale Hurston. More than 80 photographs capture Massachusetts and Maine landscapes and seascapes; others include eastern locations and New Mexico. Many photographs of actors present them in character roles. Searchable by keyword and arranged into subject and occupational indexes, this collection also includes a 9-title bibliography and background essay of 800 words on Van Vechten’s life and work. A valuable collection for the documentation of the mid-20th century art scene. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2002-10-28.
Washington As It Was: Photographs by Theodor Horydczak, 1923–1959 American Memory, Library of Congress. See JAH web review by Zachary M. Schrag. Reviewed 2005-09-01. Presents approximately 14,350 photographs by Theodor Horydczak (1890–1971), most of which document the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area between the 1920s and 1950s. Subjects include the architecture and interiors of government, commercial, and residential buildings; views of streets and neighborhoods; images of work and leisure; and events such as the 1932 Bonus March and the 1933 World Series. Also includes a limited number of shots taken in other U.S. locations and in Canada and a background essay, “Discovering Theodor Horydczak’s Washington.” Provides visual documentation of official and everyday life in the nation’s capital and its environs. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2008-10-14.
WWW-Virtual Library, History Central Catalogue History Index Network, University of Kansas. Created by an international group of volunteer institutions, this site offers a gateway with thousands of links to general history resources and seeks to provide “effective tools for practicing historians wishing to work online.“ Links are presented for the following categories: ”Research: Methods and Materials“; ”Eras and Epochs“; ”Historical Topics“; and ”By Countries and Regions." Resources Available: TEXT. Website last visited on 2008-10-06.
New York Public Library Digital Gallery New York Public Library. This massive collection presents more than 550,000 images relevant to both U.S. and world history, from the earliest days of print culture to the present. These images consist primarily of historical maps, posters, prints and photographs, illuminated manuscript pages, and images drawn from published books. For browsing, the materials are divided by subject heading, library of origin, the name of the item’s creator and/or publisher, and by collection: Arts & Literature; Cities & Building; Culture & Society; History & Geography; Industry & Technology; Nature & Science; and Printing & Graphics. Within these broad collection headings, the images are further subdivided into more specific groupings, for example, Indonesian dance, dress and fashion, Civil War medical care, and New York City apartment buildings. Keyword and Advanced Search options are useful for those wishing to locate specific items. All images can be downloaded for personal use and are accompanied by detailed biographic information, though users will have to turn elsewhere for further historical context. Resources Available: IMAGES. Website last visited on 2008-10-06.
Federal Resources for Educational Excellence: History & Social Studies U.S. Department of Education. This megasite brings together resources for teaching U.S. and world history from the far corners of the web. Most of these websites boast large collections of primary sources from the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian, the National Archives and Records Administration, and prominent universities. There are more than 600 websites listed for U.S. history alone, divided by time period and topic: Business & Work, Ethnic Groups, Famous People, Government, Movements, States & Regions, Wars, and Other Social Studies. While most of these websites are either primary source archives (for example, History of the American West, 1860–1920) or virtual exhibits, many offer lesson plans and ready-made student activities, such as EDSITEment, created by the National Endowment for the Humanities. A good place to begin is the (Subject Map), which lists resources by sub-topic, including African Americans (67 resources), Women’s History (37 resources), and Natural Disasters (16 resources). Each resource is accompanied by a brief annotation that facilitates quick browsing.
Resources Available: TEXT. Website last visited on 2008-10-06.
Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Government William C. Fray and Lisa A. Spar. This website, sponsored by Yale Law School with the International Relations and Security Network (ISN), is a collection of over 3,500 full-text documents relevant to the fields of law, history, economics, politics, diplomacy, and government. The documents are divided into four century categories: pre-18th, 18th, 19th, and 20th. Includes treaties, presidential papers and addresses, and colonial charters, as well as state and federal constitutional and legal documents. The documents are grouped into 64 Major Collection categories as well, such as Thomas Jefferson’s papers, American diplomacy, and the Cold War. All materials can be accessed through an alphabetical list, through the Major Collections page, through the four century pages, or by a keyword search. All of the search modes are easily navigable. Though most of these documents are directly related to American history, the site also includes over 100 documents on ancient, medieval, and Renaissance history, European history, and modern diplomatic documents such as the Hamas Covenant. The site is ideal for researching American diplomacy, constitutional, political, and legal history.
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Resources Available: TEXT. Website last visited on 2008-10-06.
SCETI: Schoenberg Center for Electronic Text and Image University of Pennsylvania Special Collections Library. These eclectic special collection materials span the 17th to the 20th centuries. Visitors can search material from nine collections and visit 14 exhibitions. The collection “A Crisis of the Union” on the Civil War presents 224 pamphlets, broadsides, clippings, paintings, and maps to address the “causes, conduct, and consequences” of the war. A collection devoted to Theodore Dreiser presents correspondence, variant editions of the novel Sister Carrie, an early manuscript for Jennie Gerhardt, and scholarly essays. A collection of approximately 4,000 photographs from singer Marian Anderson’s papers is complemented by an exhibit that includes more than 40 audio and video recordings. A collection on the history of chemistry emphasizes the pre-1850 period with monographs on chemistry and alchemy, and more than 3,000 prints and photographs of scientists, laboratories, and apparatus. The Robert and Molly Freedman archive of Jewish Music recordings includes 26,000 catalog entries in English, Yiddish, and Hebrew and six sample recordings. Exhibits celebrate the work of Eugene Ormandy and Leopold Stokowski. Women’s history is represented by the diaries of five American and one English woman written between 1850 and 1909. Diaries range from one to 30 years and are both indexed by date and available for reading as text. An exhibit titled “Household Words” presents writing by women about food from the 15th to the 20th century. An exhibit on the colonization of the Americas as it appeared in print presents illustrations, maps, and manuscripts from the age of exploration. The site also includes an exhibit on the development of the ENIAC computer and a selection of 49 works from the University of Pennsylvania’s art museum. he English Renaissance in Context (ERIC) provides tutorials and a database of texts to help students analyze Shakespearean works and plays. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO, VIDEO. Website last visited on 2007-12-04.
William P. Gottlieb: Photographs from the Golden Age of Jazz American Memory, Library of Congress. The New York and Washington, D.C., jazz scene from 1938 to 1948, documented in more than 1,600 photographs by writer-photographer William P. Gottlieb (1917–2006). During the course of his career, Gottlieb took portraits of prominent jazz musicians—including Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, Billie Holiday, Dizzy Gillespie, Earl Hines, Thelonious Monk, Ella Fitzgerald, and Benny Carter—and legendary venues, such as 52nd Street, the Apollo Theatre, Cafe Society, the Starlight Roof, and Zanzibar. The site also features approximately 170 related articles by Gottlieb from Down Beat magazine; 16 photographs accompanied by Gottlieb’s audio commentary on various assignments; a 4,300-word biography based on oral histories; and a 31-title bibliography. Extremely valuable for jazz fans, music historians, musicians, and those interested in urban popular culture. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO. Website last visited on 2007-12-04.
U.S. Senate Historical Office U.S. Senate Historical Office. See JAH web review by Drew E. VandeCreek. Reviewed 2004-06-01. This collection of essays about the history of the U.S. Senate begins with a brief overview (900 words). More than 140 “historical minutes” (300 words) discuss interesting events in the Senate from 1789 to 1980. Events include the caning of Charles Sumner in 1856, the 1914 ban on smoking in the Senate chamber, and a 1935 Huey Long filibuster. The complete texts of 15 oral histories, of 40 to 700 pages, of retired senators and Senate staff members are available and 15 others may be ordered. The oral histories cover 1910 to 1984 and deal with a wide range of issues, including the desegregation of the staff, the McCarthy hearings, preparations to impeach Nixon, rhetorical rules of debate, and the impact of computers on the work of the senate. Staff members include pages, the Sergeant at Arms, aides, administrative assistants, and the first African-American Government Documents Clerk. A collection of 26 essays (500 to 3000 words) discuss Senate procedure, leadership, officers of the Senate, and general information, such as the development of the oath of office. Other essays include 2,400 words on the president pro-tempore and a 1,300 word essay on the 1959 committee, chaired by John F. Kennedy, that designated the five most outstanding senators in American history. The site also includes a section of frequently asked questions about the Senate and links to a directory that provides a 150-word biography of every senator and vice president as well as many congress people and staff members. Statistics about majority and minority leaders and the practice of switching parties are also provided. The minutes of Senate Republican Conferences from 1911 to 1964 and Senate Democratic Conferences from 1903 to 1964 are available in their entirety. Visitors may also read the full texts of eight lectures given by statesmen, such as George Bush and Senator Robert C. Byrd as part of the Leaders Lectures series established in 1988 by Trent Lott. The site is easy to navigate and will be useful for research in the history of American political institutions. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2008-10-06.
Virginia Historical Society Virginia Historical Society. Since 1831, the Virginia Historical Society has been collecting materials documenting the lives of Virginians. This website provides information for researchers and the broader public interested in visiting the Society’s headquarters in Richmond, including a collections catalog, finding guides to specific collections, and information about physical exhibitions. The website also includes significant digital holdings. While only five percent of the collection has been digitized, this represents more than 5,000 items, grouped into 14 digital collections. These collections include maps, drawings, paintings, postcards, prints and engravings, 19th century photography, as well as topical collections on African Americans, the Civil War, the Retreat Hospital in Richmond, Virginia’s manufacturing of arms, the 1852 Virginia General Assembly Composite Portrait, the Reynolds Metal Company (forthcoming), the Garden Club of Virginia (forthcoming), and selections from the Society’s ongoing exhibition, The Story of Virginia. The entire collections catalog is keyword searchable, and includes an option to limit the search to digitized materials. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2009-02-15.
Integrated Public Use Microdata Series Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota. See JAH web review by Joel Perlmann. Reviewed 2003-06-01. Currently provides 22 census data samples and 65 million records from 13 federal censuses covering the period 1850–1990. These data “collectively comprise our richest source of quantitative information on long-term changes in the American population.” The project has applied uniform codes to previously published and newly created data samples. Rather than offering data in aggregated tabular form, the site offers data on individuals and households, allowing researchers to tailor tabulations to their specific interests. Includes data on fertility, marriage, immigration, internal migration, work, occupational structure, education, ethnicity, and household composition. Offers extensive documentation on procedures used to transform data and includes 13 links to other census-related sites. A complementary project to provide multiple data samples from every country from the 1960s to 2000 is underway. Currently this international series offers information and interpretive essays on Kenya, Vietnam, Mexico, Hungary, and Brazil. Of major importance for those doing serious research in social history, the site will probably be forbidding to novices. Resources Available: TEXT. Website last visited on 2008-10-08.
Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of South Carolina University of South Carolina Libraries Digital Collections. See JAH web review by John M. Sherrer and Helena Ferguson. Reviewed 2008-09-01. The 580 maps of more than 80 South Carolina towns and cities in this archive reveal urban landscapes and the locations of businesses, mills, colleges, depots, and other buildings between 1884 and 1923. The collection includes 232 unpublished, hand-drafted maps from the years 1899 to 1937. All maps are displayed with original color coding. Users can zoom in and out of maps and can pan right, left, up, or down to examine details. Every map is accompanied by bibliographic data. The full collection can be browsed or the user can choose to browse just the unpublished maps. The collection can be searched by city, year of publication, and county. The maps provide many details about mills and are particularly useful in revealing spatial relationships and location of railroad lines. There is also a link to the Union List of Sanborn and other fire insurance maps. An extremely useful resource for those researching the business or urban history of South Carolina in the decades around 1900. Resources Available: IMAGES. Website last visited on 2008-10-09.
Phillip Morris Advertising Archive Philip Morris Incorporated. See JAH web review by Pamela Walker Laird. Reviewed 2003-09-01. More than 55,000 color images of tobacco advertisements from litigated cases, dating back to 1909, are now available on this site, created as a stipulation of the Master Settlement Agreement between the tobacco industry and various states’ attorneys general. In addition, more than 26 million pages of documents concerning “research, manufacturing, marketing, advertising and sales of cigarettes, among other topics” are provided in linked sites to the four tobacco companies involved—Philip Morris, R. J. Reynolds, Lorillard, and Brown and Williamson—and to two industry organizations, the Tobacco Institute and the Council for Tobacco Research. Ads and documents can be accessed by date, brand name, title words, and persons mentioned, among other searchable fields. Images can be magnified and rotated. An important site for those studying the historical uses of advertising to promote smoking and those with a more general interest in some of the motifs in ad texts and images that have become part of 20th-century American life. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2008-10-14.
City Sites: Multimedia Essays on New York and Chicago, 1870s-1930s University of Birmingham and University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. An “electronic book,” composed of 10 multimedia essays by European and American scholars on modern urban culture in New York and Chicago. Hyperlinks allow readers to navigate thematically between essays. Ranging in length from 6,000 to 12,000 words, these essays explicitly use recent literary theory to explore urban landscapes, representations, and history. Visitors may follow particular “pathways” across essays for topics relating to architecture, leisure, race, and space. The New York essays deal with the following subjects: Harlem as refuge and ghetto in modernist art and writing; Times Square as represented in New Year’s celebrations; modern ways of seeing revealed in images of the Flatiron Building; an examination of the work of architectural illustrator Hugh Ferris in order to uncover “ways in which the modern imagination expressed itself through architectural discourse”; and tensions between turn-of-the-century representations of the Lower East Side by reformers and others. Chicago essays cover the portrayal of African-American urban styles in the art of Archibald Motley, Jr.; ways the city has been represented as a “gateway”; how urban identities are constructed and experiences portrayed in the novel Sister Carrie; ways that racial difference has been iterated in various discursive fields to shape national identity; and Maxwell Street as a site where urban renewal has displaced distinctive ethnic neighborhood cultures. Essays include dozens of photographs and multimedia displays. Includes a bibliography of more than 400 titles. As a demonstration of “ways in which new multimedia technologies can enhance conventional scholarly understandings of urban culture,” this site may represent the shape of things to come in some scholarly fields. Part of The 3Cities Project (see separate “History Matters” entry for description of larger site). Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, VIDEO. Website last visited on 2001-09-14.
Kentuckiana Digital Library Kentucky Virtual Library. Provides a wealth of historical material from 15 Kentucky colleges, universities, libraries, and historical societies. Includes nearly 8,000 photographs; 95 full-text books, manuscripts, and journals, from 1784 to 1971; 94 oral history interviews; 78 issues of the magazine Mountain Life & Work, from 1925–62; and 22 issues of the publication Works Progress Administration in Kentucky: Narrative Reports, covering 1935–37. Includes photographic collections of renowned photographer Russell Lee, who documented health conditions resulting from coal industry practices; Roy Stryker, head of the Farm Security Administration photographic project; and others that provide images of a variety of cities, towns, schools, camps, and disappearing cultures. Presents oral histories pertaining to Supreme Court Justice Stanley F. Reed, U.S. Senator John Sherman Cooper, the Frontier Nursing Service, American military veterans, Appalachian fiddlers, and the transition of an area from farming to an industrial economy. Texts include Civil War diaries, religious tracts, speeches, correspondence, and scrapbooks. Includes documents on colonization societies, civil rights, education, railroads, feuding, the Kentucky Derby, exploits of Daniel Boone, pioneer surgery, and a recollection of Abraham Lincoln. Valuable for those studying changes in the social and cultural history of the state. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES, AUDIO. Website last visited on 2007-11-23.
U.S. Steel Gary Works Photograph Collection, 1906–1971 Indiana University Northwest, Calumet Regional Archives. This site presents more than 2,200 digital images of the Gary Works Steel Mill and the corporate town of Gary, Indiana. The “tour” includes 36 photographs with interpretive text documenting the creation of the steel mill and city life in Gary. The main body of the site contains thousands of digital images and users can search by keyword or browse by subject and date for various aspects of this planned industrial community. The subject headings include the steel mill and its workers; factories and furnaces; houses and office buildings; women, children, and welfare facilities; and work accidents. The “Contextual Materials” section is a good starting place for historians and researchers interested in the Industrial Revolution. It includes an approximately 2,200-word introductory essay, “The Magic City of Steel,” by Steve McShane; four magazine articles dating from 1907 to 1913; six book excerpts, including the 1911 work by John Fitch, The Steel Workers; 14 pages from Raymond Mohl and Neil Betten’s Steel City: Urban and Ethnic Patterns in Gary, Indiana, 1906–1950 and the Carl Sandburg poem, “The Mayor of Gary.” This section is rounded out by a nearly 80-item bibliography and links to additional information about Gary, steel making, and 30 archival collections. There is also a “Teacher’s Guide” with ten primary and secondary school lesson plans and other online activities. A great site that is easily navigable for researchers, teachers, and students. Resources Available: TEXT, IMAGES. Website last visited on 2008-10-14.