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=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Oct 2003 10:42:32 -0400
Reply-To:     Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
              
Sender:       Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
              
From:         Charles Payne 
Subject:      Opening Statement from Charles Payne
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

I am very much looking forward to this month=92s discussion. Members of the =
forum should
feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get things=
 started, I am going
to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as anything mo=
re than
suggestions.

We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth anniversary of=
 Brown v. Board,
the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the fortieth of t=
he Mississippi
Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey Schwerner, James=
 Chaney and
Andrew Goodman. The  year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of the Selma=
 march and the
1965 Voting Rights Act.  How should these events be remembered?  How should =
they be
framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated?  I suspect =
that some of you
will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical strategy an=
d that=92s fine. You
should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are teachabl=
e moments in the
sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and thus, fo=
r a while, may be
more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means should thi=
s preclude
earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so forth. In =
fact, I=92m curious
about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in the Marc=
h on
Washington.

For those not interested in events, there are any number of themes/issues ab=
out which we
might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement, redbaitin=
g, nonviolence,
organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international dimensions of t=
he movement,
school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down versus
bottom-up  conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the Federal g=
overnment,
liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the tendency, w=
hich used to be
pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the movement as =
=93a great victory
for all Americans.=94  There is no doubt that the movement was a great step =
forward in many
ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have complicated cons=
equences. We
need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly.

I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best in you=
r teaching? What
lessons or approaches? Other than =93Eyes on the Prize,=94 are there audiovi=
sual products that
you have been impressed with?  Have you found ways to teach that emphasize t=
he role of
=93ordinary=94 people in making change? Ways of getting students to think mo=
re deeply about
what =93citizenship=94 is or should be? How do you deal with issues of gende=
r in the movement?

What changes have you made in your teaching since you started teaching this =
material? How
do your students react to this material?  Does their race or ethnicity make =
any difference in
their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in the way s=
tudents respond
to you?  Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to present? Have =
you had any
reactions from parents?

Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood broadly or =
narrowly.   In
the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened between th=
e mid-fifties
and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation supportive of B=
lack political and
social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something that
began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something that re=
flected a full
range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the desire for s=
elf-assertion and
self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as it did=
 nonviolence.
People should feel free to raise questions about all of it.

Again, I am looking forward to the conversation.

In struggle,

Charles Payne

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Oct 2003 11:06:07 -0400
Reply-To:     Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
              
Sender:       Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
              
From:         Patrick Jones 
Subject:      Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne
In-Reply-To:  
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed

Greetings from Allegheny College.  I am a new faculty member here, recently
moved from Madison, Wisconsin, where I completed my PhD with Tim Tyson.  My
dissertation and current book project is on race relations and civil rights
insurgency in Milwaukee from the late-50s through 1970.  As a result, I
would like to suggest one addition to Prof. Payne's intriguing list of
possible avenues for us to take.  My work is aimed at the northern movement
which has been too often ignored or reduced to a couple of simple
tropes:  urban rebellion, violence, the decline of the movement, etc.  From
my own work and the work of others (Komozi Woodard, Jeanne Theoharris,
Martha Biondi and more) it is becoming increasingly clear that there was a
lot more going on in the North than we have traditionally given credit.  I
hope that we might broaden our discussion to also include areas outside the
South!

Thanks and I look forward to this ongoing discussion!

Best,
Patrick Jones


At 10:42 AM 10/1/2003 -0400, you wrote:
>I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members of the
>forum should
>feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get
>things started, I am going
>to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as anything
>more than
>suggestions.
>
>We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth anniversary
>of Brown v. Board,
>the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the fortieth of
>the Mississippi
>Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey Schwerner,
>James Chaney and
>Andrew Goodman. The  year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of the
>Selma march and the
>1965 Voting Rights Act.  How should these events be remembered?  How
>should they be
>framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated?  I
>suspect that some of you
>will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical strategy
>and that's fine. You
>should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are
>teachable moments in the
>sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and thus,
>for a while, may be
>more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means should
>this preclude
>earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so forth.
>In fact, I'm curious
>about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in the
>March on
>Washington.
>
>For those not interested in events, there are any number of themes/issues
>about which we
>might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement,
>redbaiting, nonviolence,
>organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international dimensions of
>the movement,
>school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down versus
>bottom-up  conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the Federal
>government,
>liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the tendency,
>which used to be
>pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the movement
>as "a great victory
>for all Americans."  There is no doubt that the movement was a great step
>forward in many
>ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have complicated
>consequences. We
>need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly.
>
>I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best in
>your teaching? What
>lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there
>audiovisual products that
>you have been impressed with?  Have you found ways to teach that emphasize
>the role of
>"ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think more
>deeply about
>what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of gender
>in the movement?
>
>What changes have you made in your teaching since you started teaching
>this material? How
>do your students react to this material?  Does their race or ethnicity
>make any difference in
>their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in the way
>students respond
>to you?  Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to present?
>Have you had any
>reactions from parents?
>
>Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood broadly
>or narrowly.   In
>the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened between
>the mid-fifties
>and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation supportive of
>Black political and
>social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something that
>began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something that
>reflected a full
>range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the desire for
>self-assertion and
>self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as it
>did nonviolence.
>People should feel free to raise questions about all of it.
>
>Again, I am looking forward to the conversation.
>
>In struggle,
>
>Charles Payne
>
>This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at
>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Oct 2003 09:05:23 -0700
Reply-To:     Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
              
Sender:       Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
              
From:         David Leonard 
Subject:      Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne

It in the spirit of transcending boundaries . . .  If we intend to
transcend the southern/northern binary, in terms of the south
representing nonviolent direct action/organizing and the North
inhabiting the simplistic tropes of violence/rebellion/nationalist, we
must not erase the West from the historiography.  In addition to the
role of West Coast students during Freedom Summer and the affects of
their participation on the development of Black Studies (Lea Redmond has
a wonderful dissertation in which she connects Freedom Schools to the
development of Black Studies at Berkeley and San Francisco State), the
expansive level of organizing and social agitation that transpired in
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle and Portland requires attention and
discussion as well

Dr. David Leonard
Assistant Professor
Comparative Ethnic Studies
Washington State University
509 335-6854
----- Original Message -----
From: "Patrick Jones" 
To: 
Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 8:06 AM
Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne


> Greetings from Allegheny College.  I am a new faculty member here,
recently
> moved from Madison, Wisconsin, where I completed my PhD with Tim
Tyson.  My
> dissertation and current book project is on race relations and civil
rights
> insurgency in Milwaukee from the late-50s through 1970.  As a result,
I
> would like to suggest one addition to Prof. Payne's intriguing list of
> possible avenues for us to take.  My work is aimed at the northern
movement
> which has been too often ignored or reduced to a couple of simple
> tropes:  urban rebellion, violence, the decline of the movement, etc.
From
> my own work and the work of others (Komozi Woodard, Jeanne Theoharris,
> Martha Biondi and more) it is becoming increasingly clear that there
was a
> lot more going on in the North than we have traditionally given
credit.  I
> hope that we might broaden our discussion to also include areas
outside the
> South!
>
> Thanks and I look forward to this ongoing discussion!
>
> Best,
> Patrick Jones
>
>
> At 10:42 AM 10/1/2003 -0400, you wrote:
> >I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members of
the
> >forum should
> >feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get
> >things started, I am going
> >to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as
anything
> >more than
> >suggestions.
> >
> >We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth
anniversary
> >of Brown v. Board,
> >the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the
fortieth of
> >the Mississippi
> >Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey
Schwerner,
> >James Chaney and
> >Andrew Goodman. The  year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of
the
> >Selma march and the
> >1965 Voting Rights Act.  How should these events be remembered?  How
> >should they be
> >framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated?  I
> >suspect that some of you
> >will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical
strategy
> >and that's fine. You
> >should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are
> >teachable moments in the
> >sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and
thus,
> >for a while, may be
> >more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means
should
> >this preclude
> >earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so
forth.
> >In fact, I'm curious
> >about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in
the
> >March on
> >Washington.
> >
> >For those not interested in events, there are any number of
themes/issues
> >about which we
> >might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement,
> >redbaiting, nonviolence,
> >organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international
dimensions of
> >the movement,
> >school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down
versus
> >bottom-up  conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the
Federal
> >government,
> >liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the
tendency,
> >which used to be
> >pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the
movement
> >as "a great victory
> >for all Americans."  There is no doubt that the movement was a great
step
> >forward in many
> >ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have
complicated
> >consequences. We
> >need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly.
> >
> >I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best
in
> >your teaching? What
> >lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there
> >audiovisual products that
> >you have been impressed with?  Have you found ways to teach that
emphasize
> >the role of
> >"ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think
more
> >deeply about
> >what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of
gender
> >in the movement?
> >
> >What changes have you made in your teaching since you started
teaching
> >this material? How
> >do your students react to this material?  Does their race or
ethnicity
> >make any difference in
> >their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in
the way
> >students respond
> >to you?  Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to
present?
> >Have you had any
> >reactions from parents?
> >
> >Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood
broadly
> >or narrowly.   In
> >the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened
between
> >the mid-fifties
> >and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation
supportive of
> >Black political and
> >social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something
that
> >began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something
that
> >reflected a full
> >range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the
desire for
> >self-assertion and
> >self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as
it
> >did nonviolence.
> >People should feel free to raise questions about all of it.
> >
> >Again, I am looking forward to the conversation.
> >
> >In struggle,
> >
> >Charles Payne
> >
> >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site
at
> >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S.
History.
>
> This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site
at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S.
History.

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.
=========================================================================
Date:         Wed, 1 Oct 2003 13:33:22 -0400
Reply-To:     Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
              
Sender:       Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
              
From:         Claudia Slate 
Subject:      Civil Rights readings
MIME-Version: 1.0
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This is a multi-part message in MIME format.

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This link to UCF is a very helpful one that recommends readings and =
films in connection to Brown v. Board:  =
http://www.undergraduatestudies.ucf.edu/community/home2.html
For a broader context, I have found the movie Freedom Song well worth =
the viewing, and I have also heard that Freedom on my Mind (about Fannie =
Lou Hamer) is very good.
Claudia Slate
Professor of English
Florida Southern College
Lakeland, FL=20


This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.

------=_NextPart_000_01E2_01C38820.9577E720
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This link to UCF is a very = helpful one that=20 recommends readings and films in connection to Brown v. = Board:  htt= p://www.undergraduatestudies.ucf.edu/community/home2.html
F= or=20 a broader context, I have found the movie Freedom Song well worth the = viewing,=20 and I have also heard that Freedom on my Mind (about Fannie Lou Hamer) = is very=20 good.
Claudia Slate
Professor of English
Florida Southern=20 College
Lakeland, FL

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_01E2_01C38820.9577E720-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 13:43:01 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: AmyRuth.Tobol@ESC.EDU Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Greetings - I'm excited about the opportunity to communicate with others teaching/writing about the civil rights movement. My own interest is in thinking/teaching/talking about the civil rights movement in a more non-linear fashion. I think of the movement as something without a definable beginning or end, but with many historic and/or public moments; as a movement ebbing and flowing in different ways in different parts of the country and in different segments of the population. Because of this complexity, I do sometimes find it hard to give students a real "flavor" of what the movement was/is all about. To get to the individual experience, I use oral histories. I look for oral histories not of the stars, but of people who were moved to participate in small and big ways out of their own sense of self, morality, and/or place. I would also be very interested in materials people use. Lately, I've been thinking about how people are defining a civil rights movement today. For example, the AFL-CIO and others have sponsored a Freedom Ride in support of immigrants rights, workplace rights, etc. which will culminate in a rally in NYC this Saturday, October 4. It's being publicized as the "new" civil rights movement. Any thoughts on this? I currently teach sociology & legal studies at Empire State College in NY, where right now, probably at least half of my students are New York City police officers. So teaching about the civil rights movement is particularly challenging, to say the least! My academic research involves a civil rights organization that was incorporated in 1964 and I'm aiming to get an article out for what would have been it's fortieth anniversary, had it survived. It is rooted in a series of oral histories I conducted several years ago. The organization was the Law Students Civil Rights Research Council which facilitated law student involvement in civil rights movements throughout the United States. I have a particular interest in the participation of the legal community (lawyers, law students, legal workers) in the civil rights movement through the sixties, seventies and eighties. I'm interested to hear what others are doing and thinking about, too! Amy Ruth Tobol Assistant Professor Empire State College 223 Store Hill Rd. Old Westbury, NY 11568 516-997-4700 x141 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 13:52:38 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Mike Zaffuts Subject: Music of the Movement Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; format=flowed Greetings - I am currently working on my Masters thesis at SUNY Brockport. The thesis details the music of the early, nonviolent portion of the Movement. The four major campaigns I would like to detail are the Sit-ins, Freedom Rides, Freedom Summer, and Selma Project. My basic take is that the music of this portion of the Movement reflected the nonviolent mindset of the protesters and acted as a source of strength and unity for them. In addition, it was a defining characteristic of that particular group; it set them apart from society at large. If any forum members can offer evidence that either supports or refutes the thesis please post a message or send a separate email to cmzaffuts@hotmail.com. I would also appreciate ANY feedback from anyone who participated in any of these events, or those who can refer me to someone who was involved. I look forward to hearing from you all. Mike Zaffuts (cmzaffuts@hotmail.com) >From: David Leonard >Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement > >To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU >Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne >Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 09:05:23 -0700 > >It in the spirit of transcending boundaries . . . If we intend to >transcend the southern/northern binary, in terms of the south >representing nonviolent direct action/organizing and the North >inhabiting the simplistic tropes of violence/rebellion/nationalist, we >must not erase the West from the historiography. In addition to the >role of West Coast students during Freedom Summer and the affects of >their participation on the development of Black Studies (Lea Redmond has >a wonderful dissertation in which she connects Freedom Schools to the >development of Black Studies at Berkeley and San Francisco State), the >expansive level of organizing and social agitation that transpired in >Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle and Portland requires attention and >discussion as well > >Dr. David Leonard >Assistant Professor >Comparative Ethnic Studies >Washington State University >509 335-6854 >----- Original Message ----- >From: "Patrick Jones" >To: >Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 8:06 AM >Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne > > > > Greetings from Allegheny College. I am a new faculty member here, >recently > > moved from Madison, Wisconsin, where I completed my PhD with Tim >Tyson. My > > dissertation and current book project is on race relations and civil >rights > > insurgency in Milwaukee from the late-50s through 1970. As a result, >I > > would like to suggest one addition to Prof. Payne's intriguing list of > > possible avenues for us to take. My work is aimed at the northern >movement > > which has been too often ignored or reduced to a couple of simple > > tropes: urban rebellion, violence, the decline of the movement, etc. >From > > my own work and the work of others (Komozi Woodard, Jeanne Theoharris, > > Martha Biondi and more) it is becoming increasingly clear that there >was a > > lot more going on in the North than we have traditionally given >credit. I > > hope that we might broaden our discussion to also include areas >outside the > > South! > > > > Thanks and I look forward to this ongoing discussion! > > > > Best, > > Patrick Jones > > > > > > At 10:42 AM 10/1/2003 -0400, you wrote: > > >I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members of >the > > >forum should > > >feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get > > >things started, I am going > > >to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as >anything > > >more than > > >suggestions. > > > > > >We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth >anniversary > > >of Brown v. Board, > > >the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the >fortieth of > > >the Mississippi > > >Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey >Schwerner, > > >James Chaney and > > >Andrew Goodman. The year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of >the > > >Selma march and the > > >1965 Voting Rights Act. How should these events be remembered? How > > >should they be > > >framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated? I > > >suspect that some of you > > >will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical >strategy > > >and that's fine. You > > >should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are > > >teachable moments in the > > >sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and >thus, > > >for a while, may be > > >more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means >should > > >this preclude > > >earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so >forth. > > >In fact, I'm curious > > >about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in >the > > >March on > > >Washington. > > > > > >For those not interested in events, there are any number of >themes/issues > > >about which we > > >might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement, > > >redbaiting, nonviolence, > > >organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international >dimensions of > > >the movement, > > >school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down >versus > > >bottom-up conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the >Federal > > >government, > > >liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the >tendency, > > >which used to be > > >pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the >movement > > >as "a great victory > > >for all Americans." There is no doubt that the movement was a great >step > > >forward in many > > >ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have >complicated > > >consequences. We > > >need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly. > > > > > >I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best >in > > >your teaching? What > > >lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there > > >audiovisual products that > > >you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that >emphasize > > >the role of > > >"ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think >more > > >deeply about > > >what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of >gender > > >in the movement? > > > > > >What changes have you made in your teaching since you started >teaching > > >this material? How > > >do your students react to this material? Does their race or >ethnicity > > >make any difference in > > >their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in >the way > > >students respond > > >to you? Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to >present? > > >Have you had any > > >reactions from parents? > > > > > >Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood >broadly > > >or narrowly. In > > >the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened >between > > >the mid-fifties > > >and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation >supportive of > > >Black political and > > >social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something >that > > >began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something >that > > >reflected a full > > >range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the >desire for > > >self-assertion and > > >self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as >it > > >did nonviolence. > > >People should feel free to raise questions about all of it. > > > > > >Again, I am looking forward to the conversation. > > > > > >In struggle, > > > > > >Charles Payne > > > > > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site >at > > >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. >History. > > > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site >at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. >History. > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. _________________________________________________________________ High-speed Internet access as low as $29.95/month (depending on the local service providers in your area). Click here. https://broadband.msn.com This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 10:59:22 -0700 Reply-To: plece@wou.edu Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Emily Plec Subject: Event & Issue MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Content-Disposition: inline Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Hello. In addition to the germinal events described by Dr. Payne, I would like to add that this is the 35th anniversary of the Olympic demonstration by African American medalists Tommie Smith and John Carlos. Students at San Jose State are commemorating their raised fist protest (more information can be found at http://as.sjsu.edu/legacy/legacy.htm) in the coming year. I wrote my dissertation and a book (currently under review) on the '68 Olympics in Mexico City. One of my chief concerns is relevant to our discussion of teaching the civil rights movement. I've found that the substantive influence of Black Power tends to be downplayed and the Olympic demonstration linked up with the broader (and more palatable to many Whites and conservatives) Civil Rights Movement. An excellent example of this can be found in HBO's (Black Canyon Productions) "Fists of Freedom" (part of the "Sports in the 20th Century" series). The tendency to polarize the two movements by framing Black Power as violent, isolationist, and incendiary (by any means necessary) and Civil Rights as nonviolent, peaceful, and cooperative troubles me because it glosses so many important points of connection and overlap (in addition to essentializing both movements in problematic ways). I would like to pose issues related to civil rights, Black Power, and historical/cultural memory to this list if others are interested in taking them up. Also, I find the PBS film "Skin Deep" (part of the People's Century series) to be a solid introduction to civil rights issues in the United States (it also touches on apartheid in Africa). Thank you, Emily Plec, Ph.D. Department of Speech Communication Humanities Division Western Oregon University 345 N. Monmouth Ave. Monmouth, OR 97361 (503) 838-8819 plece@wou.edu ----- Original Message ----- From: Charles Payne Date: Wednesday, October 1, 2003 7:42 am Subject: Opening Statement from Charles Payne > I am very much looking forward to this month?s discussion. Members > of the forum should > feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to > get things started, I am going > to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as > anything more than > suggestions. > > We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth > anniversary of Brown v. Board, > the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the > fortieth of the Mississippi > Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey > Schwerner, James Chaney and > Andrew Goodman. The year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of > the Selma march and the > 1965 Voting Rights Act. How should these events be remembered? > How should they be > framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated? > I suspect that some of you > will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical > strategy and that?s fine. You > should say that and that will give us our first argument. These > are teachable moments in the > sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class > and thus, for a while, may be > more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means > should this preclude > earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so > forth. In fact, I?m curious > about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest > in the March on > Washington. > > For those not interested in events, there are any number of > themes/issues about which we > might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement, > redbaiting, nonviolence, > organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international > dimensions of the movement, > school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down > versusbottom-up conceptions of history, interracialism, the role > of the Federal government, > liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the > tendency, which used to be > pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the > movement as ?a great victory > for all Americans.? There is no doubt that the movement was a > great step forward in many > ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have > complicated consequences. We > need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly. > > I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works > best in your teaching? What > lessons or approaches? Other than ?Eyes on the Prize,? are there > audiovisual products that > you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that > emphasize the role of > ?ordinary? people in making change? Ways of getting students to > think more deeply about > what ?citizenship? is or should be? How do you deal with issues of > gender in the movement? > > What changes have you made in your teaching since you started > teaching this material? How > do your students react to this material? Does their race or > ethnicity make any difference in > their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in > the way students respond > to you? Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to > present? Have you had any > reactions from parents? > > Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood > broadly or narrowly. In > the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened > between the mid-fifties > and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation > supportive of Black political and > social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as > something that > began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as > something that reflected a full > range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the > desire for self-assertion and > self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much > as it did nonviolence. > People should feel free to raise questions about all of it. > > Again, I am looking forward to the conversation. > > In struggle, > > Charles Payne > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web > site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for > teaching U.S. History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 14:56:52 EDT Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jan Fyffe Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="part1_1a4.1a6e1ab5.2cac7d74_boundary" --part1_1a4.1a6e1ab5.2cac7d74_boundary Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="1a4.1a6e1ab5_alt_bound" --1a4.1a6e1ab5_alt_bound Content-Type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit AmyRuth: I too use oral histories to help my high school students identify with the "unknown" people of the civil rights movement. I also like to use excerpts from Coming of Age in Mississippi, a memoir of one of the college participants wrote at the "conclusion" of the movement. I found an excellent link online for oral histories--off the top of my head I don't remember the web address, but I think it's from one of the Mississippi schools. I'm trying to find information that illustrates the impact returning WWII veterans had on the movement. Does anyone have any resources to share or can anyone lead me in a direction to search for information? Thanks! Jan Fyffe English Instructor Fairborn High School Fairborn, Ohio This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --1a4.1a6e1ab5_alt_bound Content-Type: text/html; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable AmyRuth:

I too use oral histories to help my high school students identify with the "= unknown" people of the civil rights movement.  I also like to use excer= pts from Coming of Age in Mississippi, a memoir of one of the college= participants wrote at the "conclusion" of the movement.  I found an ex= cellent link online for oral histories--off the top of my head I don't remem= ber the web address, but I think it's from one of the Mississippi schools.
I'm trying to find information that illustrates the impact returning WWII ve= terans had on the movement.  Does anyone have any resources to share or= can anyone lead me in a direction to search for information?

Thanks!
Jan Fyffe
English Instructor
Fairborn High School
Fairborn, Ohio
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========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 15:00:13 EDT Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jan Fyffe Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="part1_b9.36eaff3e.2cac7e3d_boundary" --part1_b9.36eaff3e.2cac7e3d_boundary Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="b9.36eaff3e_alt_bound" --b9.36eaff3e_alt_bound Content-Type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit You may want to investigate the role Miami University in Oxford Ohio played during the movement years. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --b9.36eaff3e_alt_bound Content-Type: text/html; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable You may want to investigate=20= the role Miami University in Oxford Ohio played during the movement years. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --b9.36eaff3e_alt_bound-- --part1_b9.36eaff3e.2cac7e3d_boundary Content-ID: Content-Type: image/jpeg; name="Impressionist .jpg" Content-Disposition: inline Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 /9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAgEASABIAAD/7QcyUGhvdG9zaG9wIDMuMAA4QklNA+0AAAAAABAASAAA AAEAAQBIAAAAAQABOEJJTQQNAAAAAAAEAAAAeDhCSU0D8wAAAAAACAAAAAAAAAAAOEJJTQQK AAAAAAABAAA4QklNJxAAAAAAAAoAAQAAAAAAAAACOEJJTQP1AAAAAABIAC9mZgABAGxmZgAG AAAAAAABAC9mZgABAKGZmgAGAAAAAAABADIAAAABAFoAAAAGAAAAAAABADUAAAABAC0AAAAG AAAAAAABOEJJTQP4AAAAAABwAAD/////////////////////////////A+gAAAAA//////// /////////////////////wPoAAAAAP////////////////////////////8D6AAAAAD///// ////////////////////////A+gAADhCSU0EAAAAAAAAAgACOEJJTQQCAAAAAAAGAAAAAAAA OEJJTQQIAAAAAAApAAAAAQAAAkAAAAJAAAAABQAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAkAAAAADIABAAAJQAEA OEJJTQQUAAAAAAAEAAAAFjhCSU0EDAAAAAAFaAAAAAEAAABIAAAAZAAAANgAAFRgAAAFTAAY 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========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 14:53:59 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Roisman, Florence W" Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable I am a law professor who will teach in the Spring a new course, Law and Social Change, which will focus on "the" civil rights movement, from about 1944 to about 1978. I have two goals for the course. The easier one is for students to learn something about what happened during the CRM. The other is for students to consider the many relationships among law, legal change, and social change. =20 I teach a fair amount of civil rights material in other courses, including the required, first year, Property course. I find that most students are astoundingly ignorant even about basic facts. =20 I'll be developing the syllabus this semester, and look forward to getting ideas from this exchange. I expect to use many of the Eyes on the Prize videos and the Juan Williams book, as well as Taylor Branch's Parting the Waters and Adam Fairclough's Better Day Coming. (I'll be giving the students edited versions of cases and statutes.) =20 I would like students to understand the very different approaches of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Dr. King and SCLC, SNCC, and CORE, and to consider the various contributions of art, religion, direct action, personal courage, lobbying, litigation, and luck. As Professor Payne suggests, I hope students will understand the many ways in which the Movement and the country have not yet succeeded -- with respect to integrated education and housing, equal employment opportunity, economic justice, and peace. =20 Florence Wagman Roisman Michael McCormick Professor of Law=20 Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis 530 West New York Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 PHONE: 317 274 4479 FAX: 317 278 3326 EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 12:58:18 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "McCaman, Kristin" Subject: W.W.II Veterans MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain I recall that CORE - the Congress of Racial Equality - was founded in the 1950's in Chicago, and I believe many of the founders were W.W.II veterans. The history of CORE's work in the Midwest can help balance the Civil Rights movement narrative both geographically and generationally, as CORE's leaders were much older than the students and young radicals involved in the movement in the 1960's. Kristin McCaman Program Coordinator History San Jose Phone: (408) 993-8182 or (408) 918-1047 www.historysanjose.org > -----Original Message----- > From: Jan Fyffe [SMTP:jlfyffe@AOL.COM] > Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 11:57 AM > To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU > Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne > > AmyRuth: > > I too use oral histories to help my high school students identify with the > "unknown" people of the civil rights movement. I also like to use > excerpts from Coming of Age in Mississippi, a memoir of one of the college > participants wrote at the "conclusion" of the movement. I found an > excellent link online for oral histories--off the top of my head I don't > remember the web address, but I think it's from one of the Mississippi > schools. > > I'm trying to find information that illustrates the impact returning WWII > veterans had on the movement. Does anyone have any resources to share or > can anyone lead me in a direction to search for information? > > Thanks! > Jan Fyffe > English Instructor > Fairborn High School > Fairborn, Ohio > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at > http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. > History. << File: Impressionist .jpg >> This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 15:38:00 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: AmyRuth.Tobol@ESC.EDU Subject: Resource Suggestion MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-type: multipart/mixed; Boundary="0__=0ABBE721DFF8F3798f9e8a93df938690918c0ABBE721DFF8F379" Content-Disposition: inline --0__=0ABBE721DFF8F3798f9e8a93df938690918c0ABBE721DFF8F379 Content-transfer-encoding: quoted-printable Content-type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 This is directed to Jan Fyffe, but picks up on a resource someone refer= red to in an earlier email to this list. I read Martha Biondi's dissertati= on on the civil rights movement in the North (specifically NYC) and was v= ery impressed by her scholarship, and her arguments about the geographic an= d historical breadth of the civil rights movement. As I recall, she also= did address Jan's question about WWII vets response to the movement. Her dissertation was published this year by Harvard University Press: TO STAND AND FIGHT: THE STRUGGLE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS IN POSTWAR NEW YORK CITY= (ISBN: 0674010604). I haven't read the published version yet, so I do= n't know how it would go over with secondary students, but it seems like a = good place to start. Amy Ruth Tobol Assistant Professor Empire State College Jan Fyffe @ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU> on 10/01/2003 02:56= :52 PM Please respond to Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sent by: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement AmyRuth.Tobol@esc.edu To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU cc: Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne AmyRuth: I too use oral histories to help my high school students identify with = the "unknown" people of the civil rights movement.=A0 I also like to use ex= cerpts from Coming of Age in Mississippi, a memoir of one of the college participants wrote at the "conclusion" of the movement.=A0 I found an excellent link online for oral histories--off the top of my head I don'= t remember the web address, but I think it's from one of the Mississippi schools. I'm trying to find information that illustrates the impact returning WW= II veterans had on the movement.=A0 Does anyone have any resources to shar= e or can anyone lead me in a direction to search for information? Thanks! Jan Fyffe English Instructor Fairborn High School Fairborn, Ohio(Embedded image moved to file: pic10602.jpg) = This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0__=0ABBE721DFF8F3798f9e8a93df938690918c0ABBE721DFF8F379 Content-type: image/jpeg; name="pic10602.jpg" Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="pic10602.jpg" Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 /9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAQAAAQABAAD/2wBDAAMCAgMCAgMDAwMEAwMEBQgFBQQEBQoHBwYIDAoMDAsK CwsNDhIQDQ4RDgsLEBYQERMUFRUVDA8XGBYUGBIUFRT/2wBDAQMEBAUEBQkFBQkUDQsNFBQUFBQU FBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBQUFBT/wAARCABkAEgDASIA AhEBAxEB/8QAHwAAAQUBAQEBAQEAAAAAAAAAAAECAwQFBgcICQoL/8QAtRAAAgEDAwIEAwUFBAQA AAF9AQIDAAQRBRIhMUEGE1FhByJxFDKBkaEII0KxwRVS0fAkM2JyggkKFhcYGRolJicoKSo0NTY3 ODk6Q0RFRkdISUpTVFVWV1hZWmNkZWZnaGlqc3R1dnd4eXqDhIWGh4iJipKTlJWWl5iZmqKjpKWm p6ipqrKztLW2t7i5usLDxMXGx8jJytLT1NXW19jZ2uHi4+Tl5ufo6erx8vP09fb3+Pn6/8QAHwEA AwEBAQEBAQEBAQAAAAAAAAECAwQFBgcICQoL/8QAtREAAgECBAQDBAcFBAQAAQJ3AAECAxEEBSEx BhJBUQdhcRMiMoEIFEKRobHBCSMzUvAVYnLRChYkNOEl8RcYGRomJygpKjU2Nzg5OkNERUZHSElK U1RVVldYWVpjZGVmZ2hpanN0dXZ3eHl6goOEhYaHiImKkpOUlZaXmJmaoqOkpaanqKmqsrO0tba3 uLm6wsPExcbHyMnK0tPU1dbX2Nna4uPk5ebn6Onq8vP09fb3+Pn6/9oADAMBAAIRAxEAPwD7feN4 reVkxJl8nPUe1NVXDR7l3BBk57nn0rV1vS5LALOk0U0DNhfL6Z/yaypDvxs4+Uc44P8AhW3MpK6e 5xuPLqxk7bECqmCwycdqVSqxoqnliOn9ainiIlct93OMd/1pYWkZDhdy7jx9DS13CxOjvKWYKF3D qCM960bPUNrKqQvFgEGUNjd+A7+9ZSzyBtojHBztxjFWoLZycIxJPA4rZSkvdJauPukWRNiN86se vOeOuaaiLDCuOv8AEfU+1XJtOSBo0kchyN2/BA7f19KohJJbhl+YgNjjjn371Kk2vdHZrck3AABQ BgYorXt9Gt4o4ppb1FkYZVFGcH39qK5+fnbbZsqU3tEbq4EsEMcZDCNcYUfeJ6k//qrDiJAKvyy9 SKkEzzu0gzhzwo7Coo2TdO2SxJA5+lEIWj6Eybk7shuI/wB+AM8r1Hr2pYbVoVRGO4Ak7lOKtAj1 5Ixu4qqW3SZ5EYJ98+v51vH342RNuhK9vuJCt1OMf0/lWlaTJHIu4B1jAO1upPNQWKx+fGSuSuTj GMe/510OlvpssCSbIzcNy7ODn39vyqatTq+okncp6elzdFLqyIRiTjYMsvq3PH0xS6vYS315HGiL bO3337k+pwe+KXUYykMIsQI9jMQApAP5+/Oaq6jdX9lH5jeWwbgGM7intn/Guf3k73sdXOpRtJE9 r4aNtcyTTNiQDKuozz+P9KKqLq8jxEyF2dgBhm4FFZxi18T/ACMpO70f5mZbsuFUEAjrSzJHHF8u fvEEnOCfb8KrqF811J2KcDJ+tTTAGJUG3IbPvzXQne4PciSU/NsIA5Iz/nmkWf8Ad4POD3JHGKfH HtuGVxyAevOaYzAxbT82eue1EW0rovRk8MsgCzAgFSeOnBq5caxcQ4SIII2w+QgyT9azVZoHG45T HbkGrMAjuGUSfJE3yg9+o/Knze7qZtK+xt6LqzywO806tP8AdCMBkj1HY1YvoZLpUWSZZEb5icAY +pH+FZJsIHjlK4i8o5ILYx9c1VMrIQC7Y7dRkZrhvKpK6Y2l0RBcyuJ2YdF+TPr+Haih4hKcklRk k84zRXV7Sw9OpHdRvaQq7Ald2Q3U8dqrxsxB4Kgjr69605P3kbbyfTI5qKfDQluTg/SuiNO/wkqf cZBlhLkDcyhc9Mj1/SmxwsyMcZ74JwCP8anCPiMZKgLzTTFhk2sQoB5qZQcUJSRUjt3un8uJCZD0 Vf8APNTxQvEQrblKk5Vxgg1bsfKhnjfOduSNpGfrU2r3y31xFIF8vHr1J9aPZSlp0Hz9ERW5vWty dguImOCv3iD68c1Wubie8xGyAeWDgAcge/c10dr4nmt90TRoVA+YKgUN+X9KxbqaK/uN0MawgDoD nI6euamFC8uawc5UjtyvV1x1XI5/Cip8t5pKMEweBjODRRyLsK9+pfNjNcLOUhaJAgbD4OfXHr3q jp8DTzCBSWkPIB4A46VrT+JLx0YSlSXHXaAMe2OlU9O0+9a7kuFhyODy4TjjrXbTb5XczdlsPOlX Pn+RhVlbGNx47entUFxpl4GLJA+OS3y9OmP/AK1dBc6taR3OzfDFcIMgnD5PoDWct7dXMbbNQEgL fdjG0Z9Khz5lqTfyMW4iuFj4DccnGeP/AK1VUiY3io7EKe57Vv3OmzCJ5GkjiY8ku/Q//Xqo8bRS QgCzuWLBQ8chLHPfHbFVGai99C+ZbIux6XbtK8ZuowrqDlm6e3/6qdF4e8meU2268UA4ZVwqnqOv P41DZeEdTW8MjLvGMqxI/Cg6jd2d8sQZT85GBxnkg8+lRbn0pO5UbReps3un2VjYKxhna7IAKBQe uB26YPvRWfJrOoQfviybFO0HZkqfQk0VgnNf8OU5KO2hSisJbre5YsygkFlxnngflUMsl1MzWib3 UYJiTn8KsNrcka+UN6AKCNhwPSqEdzIt15gcq+QS34E1vCLd7sxlLma0J00y5sZTPPYGZQOEJxt9 +D/On3epWbxLHFpsaA8k55JHuOgqKfW576GSHezRknJIx/8ArrMVWaVRglh2NR0sG5Y0+eJrpRPl 4A2PLyTj2rXNwvmZt7RCpwS4G3aPYY9uua56GR4Zy4YAcDLcgnPIrqLZdNC43yNI3VWUg+4x6U1T UlzA9NDSt7qaVmjjjFvtI3S7s5Ptg8Y9ang8O2jSC4Mc5lAIxKwKjJzkcVisLGJsXMU6OoOFGOR2 +hxxmq7awVjQKSyjkDzG468defTisI05u/s3Zen/AAS20tGjY1XTYSiN9tBdRzA/zbgOgHp/KiuX hudyszjI359PwzRW8aE1dLUTm3a5A3/Hy/0xToxtl2gnBT8qKK2qfa9DJfEV4mKRnBJw3fvmrSj9 0G6MwwTRRXKi5FeGMSs27JxzXX6NptvPYB3Qs/PzZ54oorpTtTdgfQxPFNqlrepFFlVTPfJPPeqM Z/cHvkHrRRThrGPyJ7CoT9kIzkYJwaKKK3T1YI//2Q== --0__=0ABBE721DFF8F3798f9e8a93df938690918c0ABBE721DFF8F379-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 12:44:04 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Nishani Frazier Subject: Re: Music of the Movement In-Reply-To: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="0-1417940488-1065037444=:69442" --0-1417940488-1065037444=:69442 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Hello all, I am pleased to be a part of this list-serv. I am a civil rights baby- so anything related to the freedom movement and black power is of interest to me. I thought that I might direct this message to Mike: Sing For Freedom: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement Through Its Songs is an old text, but it lists freedom songs by periods of the movement-i.e. sit-ins, freedom rides, etc. and provides a short background history on many of the songs, as well as how they are altered and/or created. Try also Voices of the Civil Rights Movement: Black American Freedom Songs by Bernice Johnson Reagon. Bernice Johnson Reagon immediately jumps to mind as someone you must speak with regarding freedom songs. She joined SNCC and later the SNCC Freedom Singers in the early 1960s. The group sang at demonstrations, jails, etc. She is currently known for her work with Sweet Honey in the Rock. I would note that some of her music becomes more "militant" with the rise of Black Power. This leads me to the current framework for your paper. I am a little uncomfortable with simply labeling these songs as representative of just a non-violent ideology. I think, perhaps, you are better off maybe speaking of this music as a convergence of faith based music and blues with a Christian theology and a belief in non-violent tactics. I am not sure if you are arguing that the music set them apart from Northern movements or from the Black Power movement. I would note, however, that Elaine Brown, a former Black Panther, noted in her autobiography that the Black Panther newspaper sold her album of "revolutionary" songs. As I noted above, Bernice Johnson Reagon also had an album characterized by this period. An addition to this list is "Mississippi Goddamn" (Nina Simone)- which breaks from the faith music to express the emerging frustrations of demonstrators/marchers. Also illustrated in the Eyes on the Prize Series, are chants by Panther members to "free Huey". Though maybe not songs, the rhythmic nature of the chant lends itself to a musical style. And finally, there are a few "northern" freedom songs floating about, which the above two books can assist you in finding. Good luck on your research. It sounds really interesting (no pun intended). Nishani Frazier, Associate Curator African American Archives Western Reserve Historical Society Mike Zaffuts wrote: Greetings - I am currently working on my Masters thesis at SUNY Brockport. The thesis details the music of the early, nonviolent portion of the Movement. The four major campaigns I would like to detail are the Sit-ins, Freedom Rides, Freedom Summer, and Selma Project. My basic take is that the music of this portion of the Movement reflected the nonviolent mindset of the protesters and acted as a source of strength and unity for them. In addition, it was a defining characteristic of that particular group; it set them apart from society at large. If any forum members can offer evidence that either supports or refutes the thesis please post a message or send a separate email to cmzaffuts@hotmail.com. I would also appreciate ANY feedback from anyone who participated in any of these events, or those who can refer me to someone who was involved. I look forward to hearing from you all. Mike Zaffuts (cmzaffuts@hotmail.com) >From: David Leonard >Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement > >To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU >Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne >Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 09:05:23 -0700 > >It in the spirit of transcending boundaries . . . If we intend to >transcend the southern/northern binary, in terms of the south >representing nonviolent direct action/organizing and the North >inhabiting the simplistic tropes of violence/rebellion/nationalist, we >must not erase the West from the historiography. In addition to the >role of West Coast students during Freedom Summer and the affects of >their participation on the development of Black Studies (Lea Redmond has >a wonderful dissertation in which she connects Freedom Schools to the >development of Black Studies at Berkeley and San Francisco State), the >expansive level of organizing and social agitation that transpired in >Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle and Portland requires attention and >discussion as well > >Dr. David Leonard >Assistant Professor >Comparative Ethnic Studies >Washington State University >509 335-6854 >----- Original Message ----- >From: "Patrick Jones" >To: >Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 8:06 AM >Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne > > > > Greetings from Allegheny College. I am a new faculty member here, >recently > > moved from Madison, Wisconsin, where I completed my PhD with Tim >Tyson. My > > dissertation and current book project is on race relations and civil >rights > > insurgency in Milwaukee from the late-50s through 1970. As a result, >I > > would like to suggest one addition to Prof. Payne's intriguing list of > > possible avenues for us to take. My work is aimed at the northern >movement > > which has been too often ignored or reduced to a couple of simple > > tropes: urban rebellion, violence, the decline of the movement, etc. >From > > my own work and the work of others (Komozi Woodard, Jeanne Theoharris, > > Martha Biondi and more) it is becoming increasingly clear that there >was a > > lot more going on in the North than we have traditionally given >credit. I > > hope that we might broaden our discussion to also include areas >outside the > > South! > > > > Thanks and I look forward to this ongoing discussion! > > > > Best, > > Patrick Jones > > > > > > At 10:42 AM 10/1/2003 -0400, you wrote: > > >I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members of >the > > >forum should > > >feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get > > >things started, I am going > > >to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as >anything > > >more than > > >suggestions. > > > > > >We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth >anniversary > > >of Brown v. Board, > > >the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the >fortieth of > > >the Mississippi > > >Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey >Schwerner, > > >James Chaney and > > >Andrew Goodman. The year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of >the > > >Selma march and the > > >1965 Voting Rights Act. How should these events be remembered? How > > >should they be > > >framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated? I > > >suspect that some of you > > >will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical >strategy > > >and that's fine. You > > >should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are > > >teachable moments in the > > >sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and >thus, > > >for a while, may be > > >more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means >should > > >this preclude > > >earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so >forth. > > >In fact, I'm curious > > >about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in >the > > >March on > > >Washington. > > > > > >For those not interested in events, there are any number of >themes/issues > > >about which we > > >might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement, > > >redbaiting, nonviolence, > > >organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international >dimensions of > > >the movement, > > >school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down >versus > > >bottom-up conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the >Federal > > >government, > > >liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the >tendency, > > >which used to be > > >pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the >movement > > >as "a great victory > > >for all Americans." There is no doubt that the movement was a great >step > > >forward in many > > >ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have >complicated > > >consequences. We > > >need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly. > > > > > >I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best >in > > >your teaching? What > > >lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there > > >audiovisual products that > > >you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that >emphasize > > >the role of > > >"ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think >more > > >deeply about > > >what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of >gender > > >in the movement? > > > > > >What changes have you made in your teaching since you started >teaching > > >this material? How > > >do your students react to this material? Does their race or >ethnicity > > >make any difference in > > >their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in >the way > > >students respond > > >to you? Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to >present? > > >Have you had any > > >reactions from parents? > > > > > >Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood >broadly > > >or narrowly. In > > >the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened >between > > >the mid-fifties > > >and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation >supportive of > > >Black political and > > >social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something >that > > >began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something >that > > >reflected a full > > >range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the >desire for > > >self-assertion and > > >self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as >it > > >did nonviolence. > > >People should feel free to raise questions about all of it. > > > > > >Again, I am looking forward to the conversation. > > > > > >In struggle, > > > > > >Charles Payne > > > > > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site >at > > >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. >History. > > > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site >at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. >History. > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. _________________________________________________________________ High-speed Internet access as low as $29.95/month (depending on the local service providers in your area). Click here. https://broadband.msn.com This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --------------------------------- Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-1417940488-1065037444=:69442 Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii
Hello all,
 
I am pleased to be a part of this list-serv.  I am a civil rights baby- so anything related to the freedom movement and black power is of interest to me.
 
I thought that I might direct this message to Mike:
 
Sing For Freedom: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement Through Its Songs is an old text, but it lists freedom songs by periods of the movement-i.e. sit-ins, freedom rides, etc. and provides a short background history on many of the songs, as well as how they are altered and/or created.  Try also Voices of the Civil Rights Movement: Black American Freedom Songs by Bernice Johnson Reagon.
 
Bernice Johnson Reagon immediately jumps to mind as someone you must speak with regarding freedom songs.  She joined SNCC and later the SNCC Freedom Singers in the early 1960s. The group sang at demonstrations, jails, etc.  She is currently known for her work with Sweet Honey in the Rock.  I would note that some of her music becomes more "militant" with the rise of Black Power. 
This leads me to the current framework for your paper.  I am a little uncomfortable with simply labeling these songs as representative of just a non-violent ideology.  I think, perhaps, you are better off maybe speaking of this music as a convergence of faith based music and blues with a Christian theology and a belief in non-violent tactics.
 
I am not sure if you are arguing that the music set them apart from Northern movements or from the Black Power movement.  I would note, however, that Elaine Brown, a former Black Panther, noted in her autobiography that the Black Panther newspaper sold her album of "revolutionary" songs.  As I noted above, Bernice Johnson Reagon also had an album characterized by this period.  An addition to this list is "Mississippi Goddamn" (Nina Simone)- which breaks from the faith music to express the emerging frustrations of demonstrators/marchers.  Also illustrated in the Eyes on the Prize Series, are chants by Panther members to "free Huey".  Though maybe not songs, the rhythmic nature of the chant lends itself to a musical style.   And finally, there are a few "northern" freedom songs floating about, which the above two books can assist you in finding.
 
Good luck on your research.  It sounds really interesting (no pun intended).
 
 
Nishani Frazier, Associate Curator
African American Archives
Western Reserve Historical Society
 
 
 
 

Mike Zaffuts <cmzaffuts@HOTMAIL.COM> wrote:
Greetings -
I am currently working on my Masters thesis at SUNY Brockport. The thesis
details the music of the early, nonviolent portion of the Movement. The four
major campaigns I would like to detail are the Sit-ins, Freedom Rides,
Freedom Summer, and Selma Project. My basic take is that the music of this
portion of the Movement reflected the nonviolent mindset of the protesters
and acted as a source of strength and unity for them. In addition, it was a
defining characteristic of that particular group; it set them apart from
society at large. If any forum members can offer evidence that either
supports or refutes the thesis please post a message or send a separate
email to cmzaffuts@hotmail.com. I would also appreciate ANY feedback from
anyone who participated in any of these events, or those who can refer me to
someone who was involved. I look forward to hearing from you all.

Mike Zaffuts (cmzaffuts@hotmail.com)


>From: David Leonard
>Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement
>
>To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU
>Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne
>Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 09:05:23 -0700
>
>It in the spirit of transcending boundaries . . . If we intend to
>transcend the southern/northern binary, in terms of the south
>representing nonviolent direct action/organizing and the North
>inhabiting the simplistic tropes of violence/rebellion/nationalist, we
>must not erase the West from the historiography. In addition to the
>role of West Coast students during Freedom Summer and the affects of
>their participation on the development of Black Studies (Lea Redmond has
>a wonderful dissertation in which she connects Freedom Schools to the
>development of Black Studies at Berkeley and San Francisco State), the
>expansive level of organizing and social agitation that transpired in
>Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle and Portland requires attention and
>discussion as well
>
>Dr. David Leonard
>Assistant Professor
>Comparative Ethnic Studies
>Washington State University
>509 335-6854
>----- Original Message -----
>From: "Patrick Jones"
>To:
>Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 8:06 AM
>Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne
>
>
> > Greetings from Allegheny College. I am a new faculty member here,
>recently
> > moved from Madison, Wisconsin, where I completed my PhD with Tim
>Tyson. My
> > dissertation and current book project is on race relations and civil
>rights
> > insurgency in Milwaukee from the late-50s through 1970. As a result,
>I
> > would like to suggest one addition to Prof. Payne's intriguing list of
> > possible avenues for us to take. My work is aimed at the northern
>movement
> > which has been too often ignored or reduced to a couple of simple
> > tropes: urban rebellion, violence, the decline of the movement, etc.
>From
> > my own work and the work of others (Komozi Woodard, Jeanne Theoharris,
> > Martha Biondi and more) it is becoming increasingly clear that there
>was a
> > lot more going on in the North than we have traditionally given
>credit. I
> > hope that we might broaden our discussion to also include areas
>outside the
> > South!
> >
> > Thanks and I look forward to this ongoing discussion!
> >
> > Best,
> > Patrick Jones
> >
> >
> > At 10:42 AM 10/1/2003 -0400, you wrote:
> > >I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members of
>the
> > >forum should
> > >feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get
> > >things started, I am going
> > >to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as
>anything
> > >more than
> > >suggestions.
> > >
> > >We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth
>anniversary
> > >of Brown v. Board,
> > >the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the
>fortieth of
> > >the Mississippi
> > >Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey
>Schwerner,
> > >James Chaney and
> > >Andrew Goodman. The year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of
>the
> > >Selma march and the
> > >1965 Voting Rights Act. How should these events be remembered? How
> > >should they be
> > >framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated? I
> > >suspect that some of you
> > >will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical
>strategy
> > >and that's fine. You
> > >should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are
> > >teachable moments in the
> > >sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and
>thus,
> > >for a while, may be
> > >more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means
>should
> > >this preclude
> > >earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so
>forth.
> > >In fact, I'm curious
> > >about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in
>the
> > >March on
> > >Washington.
> > >
> > >For those not interested in events, there are any number of
>themes/issues
> > >about which we
> > >might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement,
> > >redbaiting, nonviolence,
> > >organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international
>dimensions of
> > >the movement,
> > >school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down
>versus
> > >bottom-up conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the
>Federal
> > >government,
> > >liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the
>tendency,
> > >which used to be
> > >pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the
>movement
> > >as "a great victory
> > >for all Americans." There is no doubt that the movement was a great
>step
> > >forward in many
> > >ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have
>complicated
> > >consequences. We
> > >need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly.
> > >
> > >I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best
>in
> > >your teaching? What
> > >lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there
> > >audiovisual products that
> > >you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that
>emphasize
> > >the role of
> > >"ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think
>more
> > >deeply about
> > >what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of
>gender
> > >in the movement?
> > >
> > >What changes have you made in your teaching since you started
>teaching
> > >this material? How
> > >do your students react to this material? Does their race or
>ethnicity
> > >make any difference in
> > >their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in
>the way
> > >students respond
> > >to you? Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to
>present?
> > >Have you had any
> > >reactions from parents?
> > >
> > >Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood
>broadly
> > >or narrowly. In
> > >the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened
>between
> > >the mid-fifties
> > >and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation
>supportive of
> > >Black political and
> > >social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something
>that
> > >began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something
>that
> > >reflected a full
> > >range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the
>desire for
> > >self-assertion and
> > >self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as
>it
> > >did nonviolence.
> > >People should feel free to raise questions about all of it.
> > >
> > >Again, I am looking forward to the conversation.
> > >
> > >In struggle,
> > >
> > >Charles Payne
> > >
> > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site
>at
> > >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S.
>History.
> >
> > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site
>at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S.
>History.
>
>This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at
>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.

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This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.


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The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-1417940488-1065037444=:69442-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 16:20:02 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Curtis Austin Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; type="multipart/alternative"; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0091_01C38837.DDC43CB0" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0091_01C38837.DDC43CB0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_001_0092_01C38837.DDC43CB0" ------=_NextPart_001_0092_01C38837.DDC43CB0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable For info on the impact of returning vets on the movement, see Neil = McMillen's Remaking Dixie: The Impact of World War II on the American = South. The Center for Oral History and Cultural Heritage at the = University of Southern Mississippi has produced a CD-ROM entitled = Democracy's Soldiers: Mississippians and War in the Twentieth Century = that has some information that may be able to help you. ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Jan Fyffe=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 1:56 PM Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne AmyRuth: I too use oral histories to help my high school students identify with = the "unknown" people of the civil rights movement. I also like to use = excerpts from Coming of Age in Mississippi, a memoir of one of the = college participants wrote at the "conclusion" of the movement. I found = an excellent link online for oral histories--off the top of my head I = don't remember the web address, but I think it's from one of the = Mississippi schools. I'm trying to find information that illustrates the impact returning = WWII veterans had on the movement. Does anyone have any resources to = share or can anyone lead me in a direction to search for information? Thanks! Jan Fyffe English Instructor Fairborn High School Fairborn, Ohio This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please = visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources = for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_001_0092_01C38837.DDC43CB0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
For info on the impact of returning = vets on the=20 movement, see Neil McMillen's Remaking Dixie:  The Impact of World = War II=20 on the American South.  The Center for Oral History and Cultural = Heritage=20 at the University of Southern Mississippi has produced a CD-ROM entitled = Democracy's Soldiers:  Mississippians and War in the Twentieth = Century that=20 has some information that may be able to help you.
----- Original Message -----
From:=20 Jan = Fyffe
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Wednesday, October 01, = 2003 1:56=20 PM
Subject: Re: Opening Statement = from=20 Charles Payne

AmyRuth:

I too use = oral histories=20 to help my high school students identify with the "unknown" people of = the=20 civil rights movement.  I also like to use excerpts from = Coming of Age=20 in Mississippi, a memoir of one of the college participants wrote = at the=20 "conclusion" of the movement.  I found an excellent link online = for oral=20 histories--off the top of my head I don't remember the web address, = but I=20 think it's from one of the Mississippi schools.

I'm trying to = find=20 information that illustrates the impact returning WWII veterans had on = the=20 movement.  Does anyone have any resources to share or can anyone = lead me=20 in a direction to search for information?

Thanks!
Jan=20 Fyffe
English Instructor
Fairborn High School
Fairborn, = Ohio
=20 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site = at=20 http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History.=20
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JP4b6C3JsENLvVkNYp4qrKJbcE8txvo9Ozpc1rwX7GXsscTbbZbaJaplbkPNYAAj8dUbqtTZJL9e oCl4WTh/9XSzfe4+SliKeFa8IKn6d5kEjYnUC9691aU1/QVqdcPAK3dytSKhZkEEIbX2JB9Jg7x0 21V7NU4xP2Fy/UT1ZPJWe1ZHuEz0PXpOmbNbdlXwbhH/09V2/wDQ89YET0j+GvR+Txk89zB9SZ2+ nh49fw1m+eiNpyBUe5xWeX1t16fHl/LUweA4f1cfr4+qPL4a1T2B8AtfDj/l+rl6o/unx0xf7L7h F67b/qPth91Pv7+5HLl4R+w1T8n3Mxx/AtfQr36h+196j7Pn7MN0nl1P18tK0d+qn9jagdM+yZjj Bmflto3/ANoODy8vtzM+36omImROmXnvg5H/2Q== ------=_NextPart_000_0091_01C38837.DDC43CB0-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 17:54:47 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Patrick Jones Subject: WWII vets and CRM Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="=====================_32656106==_.ALT" --=====================_32656106==_.ALT Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed Here are a few more sources on the link between WWII vets and the CRM. There are also numerous sources on race during WWII: - Jon Egerton, Speak Now Against the Day - Richard M. Dalfiume, "The Forgotten Years of the Negro Revolution." In Journal of American History. Volume 55, 1968-1969: 90-106. - Charles Payne, I've Got the Light of Freedom - Tim Tyson, Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power - Adam Fairclough. "The Civil Rights Movement in Louisiana 1939-1954." In The Making of Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, ed. Brian Ward and Tony Badger. London: MacMillan Press Ltd, 1996. - Lawson, Steven F. Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944-1969. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976i. - Sitkoff, Harvard. "African American Militancy in the World War Two South: Another Perspective." In Remaking Dixie: The Impact of World War II on the American South, ed., Neil R. McMillen. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1997. Best, Patrick Jones This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --=====================_32656106==_.ALT Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Here are a few more sources on the link between WWII vets and the CRM.  There are also numerous sources on race during WWII:
 
-  Jon Egerton, Speak Now Against the Day
-  Richard M. Dalfiume,  "The Forgotten Years of the Negro Revolution." In Journal of American History. Volume 55, 1968-1969: 90-106.
-  Charles Payne, I've Got the Light of Freedom
- Tim Tyson, Radio Free Dixie:  Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power
-  Adam Fairclough. "The Civil Rights Movement in Louisiana 1939-1954." In The Making of Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, ed. Brian Ward and Tony Badger. London: MacMillan Press Ltd, 1996.
-  Lawson, Steven F. Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944-1969. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976i.
-  Sitkoff, Harvard. "African American Militancy in the World War Two South: Another Perspective." In Remaking Dixie: The Impact of World War II on the American South, ed., Neil R. McMillen. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1997.


Best,
Patrick Jones
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --=====================_32656106==_.ALT-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 17:29:34 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Jonathan L. Entin" Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne In-Reply-To: MIME-version: 1.0 Content-type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Content-transfer-encoding: 7BIT Like Florence Roisman, I also am a law professor. I have been teaching a course that focuses heavily on the civil rights movement (more than half a semester on the legal campaign against segregation, the rest on the legal campaign against gender discrimination). I use a variety of legal, historical, sociological, political, and psychological materials to help students understand not only the development of legal doctrine but also the social impact of litigation and both the possibilities and limitations of litigation as a reform strategy. I very much look forward to this conversation as a way to enrich my own teaching and research. Jonathan L. Entin Professor of Law and Political Science Case Western Reserve University 216-368-3321 (voice) 216-368-2086 (fax) jle@cwru.edu (e-mail) This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 15:28:49 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Heather Lewis Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne In-Reply-To: <5.1.0.14.2.20031001105814.00a70710@emailin> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="0-1334292917-1065047329=:21607" --0-1334292917-1065047329=:21607 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Greetings from New York University where I am a doctoral student in the history of education. My dissertation is on the community control movement in New York City and its aftermath in the 1970s and 1980s. I am in full agreement with Patrick Jones regarding the need for more research on the northern civil rights movement; broadly defined. I am interested in discussing the following aspects of the northern movement: 1. How can we historicize current theories about the outcomes and legacies of social movements in the North (Tilly, McAdam, Giugni). 2. If we are to address the reductive tropes of the northern movement by telling a different story, don't we also need to address the reasons these ahistorical tropes have dominated popular and scholarly accounts of the movement in the North? What role has memory played in reproducing distorted accounts of the black power movement? Why do declension theories usually conclude that black power represented the end of the "liberal coalition" in the North? In many instances, opponents of Northern movements defended their civil rights "records" by holding up their support for the Southern civil rights movement. Thanks to everyone who put this list together. This is a much-needed conversation. Heather , tPatrick Jones wrote: Greetings from Allegheny College. I am a new faculty member here, recently moved from Madison, Wisconsin, where I completed my PhD with Tim Tyson. My dissertation and current book project is on race relations and civil rights insurgency in Milwaukee from the late-50s through 1970. As a result, I would like to suggest one addition to Prof. Payne's intriguing list of possible avenues for us to take. My work is aimed at the northern movement which has been too often ignored or reduced to a couple of simple tropes: urban rebellion, violence, the decline of the movement, etc. From my own work and the work of others (Komozi Woodard, Jeanne Theoharris, Martha Biondi and more) it is becoming increasingly clear that there was a lot more going on in the North than we have traditionally given credit. I hope that we might broaden our discussion to also include areas outside the South! Thanks and I look forward to this ongoing discussion! Best, Patrick Jones At 10:42 AM 10/1/2003 -0400, you wrote: >I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members of the >forum should >feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get >things started, I am going >to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as anything >more than >suggestions. > >We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth anniversary >of Brown v. Board, >the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the fortieth of >the Mississippi >Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey Schwerner, >James Chaney and >Andrew Goodman. The year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of the >Selma march and the >1965 Voting Rights Act. How should these events be remembered? How >should they be >framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated? I >suspect that some of you >will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical strategy >and that's fine. You >should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are >teachable moments in the >sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and thus, >for a while, may be >more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means should >this preclude >earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so forth. >In fact, I'm curious >about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in the >March on >Washington. > >For those not interested in events, there are any number of themes/issues >about which we >might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement, >redbaiting, nonviolence, >organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international dimensions of >the movement, >school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down versus >bottom-up conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the Federal >government, >liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the tendency, >which used to be >pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the movement >as "a great victory >for all Americans." There is no doubt that the movement was a great step >forward in many >ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have complicated >consequences. We >need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly. > >I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best in >your teaching? What >lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there >audiovisual products that >you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that emphasize >the role of >"ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think more >deeply about >what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of gender >in the movement? > >What changes have you made in your teaching since you started teaching >this material? How >do your students react to this material? Does their race or ethnicity >make any difference in >their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in the way >students respond >to you? Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to present? >Have you had any >reactions from parents? > >Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood broadly >or narrowly. In >the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened between >the mid-fifties >and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation supportive of >Black political and >social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something that >began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something that >reflected a full >range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the desire for >self-assertion and >self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as it >did nonviolence. >People should feel free to raise questions about all of it. > >Again, I am looking forward to the conversation. > >In struggle, > >Charles Payne > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --------------------------------- Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-1334292917-1065047329=:21607 Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii
Greetings from New York University  where I am a doctoral student in the history of education.  My dissertation is on the community control movement in New York City and its aftermath in the 1970s and 1980s.  I am in full agreement with Patrick Jones regarding the need for more research on the northern civil rights movement;  broadly defined.  I am interested in discussing the following aspects of the northern movement:
 
1. How can we historicize current theories about the outcomes and legacies of social movements  in the North (Tilly, McAdam, Giugni). 
 
2. If we are to address  the reductive tropes of the northern movement  by telling a different story, don't we also need to address the reasons these ahistorical tropes have dominated popular and scholarly accounts of the movement in the North? What role has memory played in reproducing distorted accounts of the black power movement?  Why do declension theories usually conclude that black power represented the end of the "liberal coalition" in the North?    In many instances, opponents of Northern movements defended their civil rights "records" by holding up their support for the Southern civil rights movement.  
 
Thanks to everyone who put this list together.  This is a much-needed conversation.
 
Heather
 
, tPatrick Jones <pjones@ALLEGHENY.EDU> wrote:
Greetings from Allegheny College. I am a new faculty member here, recently
moved from Madison, Wisconsin, where I completed my PhD with Tim Tyson. My
dissertation and current book project is on race relations and civil rights
insurgency in Milwaukee from the late-50s through 1970. As a result, I
would like to suggest one addition to Prof. Payne's intriguing list of
possible avenues for us to take. My work is aimed at the northern movement
which has been too often ignored or reduced to a couple of simple
tropes: urban rebellion, violence, the decline of the movement, etc. From
my own work and the work of others (Komozi Woodard, Jeanne Theoharris,
Martha Biondi and more) it is becoming increasingly clear that there was a
lot more going on in the North than we have traditionally given credit. I
hope that we might broaden our discussion to also include areas outside the
South!

Thanks and I look forward to this ongoing discussion!

Best,
Patrick Jones


At 10:42 AM 10/1/2003 -0400, you wrote:
>I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members of the
>forum should
>feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get
>things started, I am going
>to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as anything
>more than
>suggestions.
>
>We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth anniversary
>of Brown v. Board,
>the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the fortieth of
>the Mississippi
>Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey Schwerner,
>James Chaney and
>Andrew Goodman. The year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of the
>Selma march and the
>1965 Voting Rights Act. How should these events be remembered? How
>should they be
>framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated? I
>suspect that some of you
>will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical strategy
>and that's fine. You
>should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are
>teachable moments in the
>sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and thus,
>for a while, may be
>more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means should
>this preclude
>earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so forth.
>In fact, I'm curious
>about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in the
>March on
>Washington.
>
>For those not interested in events, there are any number of themes/issues
>about which we
>might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement,
>redbaiting, nonviolence,
>organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international dimensions of
>the movement,
>school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down versus
>bottom-up conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the Federal
>government,
>liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the tendency,
>which used to be
>pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the movement
>as "a great victory
>for all Americans." There is no doubt that the movement was a great step
>forward in many
>ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have complicated
>consequences. We
>need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly.
>
>I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best in
>your teaching? What
>lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there
>audiovisual products that
>you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that emphasize
>the role of
>"ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think more
>deeply about
>what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of gender
>in the movement?
>
>What changes have you made in your teaching since you started teaching
>this material? How
>do your students react to this material? Does their race or ethnicity
>make any difference in
>their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in the way
>students respond
>to you? Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to present?
>Have you had any
>reactions from parents?
>
>Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood broadly
>or narrowly. In
>the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened between
>the mid-fifties
>and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation supportive of
>Black political and
>social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something that
>began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something that
>reflected a full
>range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the desire for
>self-assertion and
>self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as it
>did nonviolence.
>People should feel free to raise questions about all of it.
>
>Again, I am looking forward to the conversation.
>
>In struggle,
>
>Charles Payne
>
>This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at
>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.


Do you Yahoo!?
The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-1334292917-1065047329=:21607-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 18:19:42 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Ann Short Chirhart Subject: Teaching civil rights Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed I am interested in a few topics: 1. How do we address anniversaries like Brown v. Board of Education so that students can understand the context of the decision as well as the consequences? What does school desegregation mean now? 2. How do we address the construction of race through time? How do the terms "whiteness" and "race relations" affect our perception of race and evidence of racism? 3. How do we discuss nonviolence as a viable tactic used by labor and civil rights movements? My students usually see it as an ineffective strategy. 4. What do we mean by nationalism? In the past few years, because of works by Charles Payne and Patricia Sullivan among others, I have dramatically changed the way I teach the civil rights movement. I tend to see the period following Reconstruction as waves of activism followed by responses. These waves of activism ultimately built into what we now call the civil rights movement from the 1950s to the present. But it was built on actions of African Americans from Reconstruction on. For example, in Georgia, there were several activists for black equality. Some even formed an equal rights organization in the 1870s and 1880s. Civil rights, then, becomes a theme of my survey, U. S. History from 1865-the present. It's not simply class, race, and gender. It's about power, rights, and empowerment. Any thoughts? Ann Short Chirhart Dr. Ann Short Chirhart Assistant Professor of American History Department of History Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN 47809 812-237-2723 aschir@ma.rr.com This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 1 Oct 2003 19:51:18 -0600 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Caren Brandt Philips Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit I have used the Southern Poverty Law Center's materials with great success, with high school and even middle school students. Check out their website at teachingtolerance.org. 2 basic 1 hour films use excerpts from Eyes on the Prize and are very powerful overviews. There's now a new one on Rosa Parks. It's free to schools. Their excellent written materials include synopses and photos of well known and not-so-well known civil rights heroes. Another amazing film is a documentary by 60 Minutes reporters on how the Black Panthers were targeted for destruction by the FBI - I just can't remember the title but can dig it out if someone wants to know. I was able to rent it from my independent video store to show in school. I want to take Nishani Frasier's comment about the music of the era one step further, and say that I think sometimes the nonviolent aspect of the Civil Rights Movement is overemphasized. I was a teenager in the 60's, growing up in a white neighborhoods in NY, reading Eldridge Cleaver, Malcolm X's biography, etc. When teaching the Civil Rights movement at least at the high school level and above, I think it is important for students to figure out that violence and the threat of violence - including riots and talk of revolution had a huge effect on the successes of the movement. And to bring in current statistics to debunk white students' notions that everyone is equal now. I found it hard to dig out usable statistics and other information very quickly, however, e.g., statistics on class and race. ----- Original Message ----- From: To: Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 11:43 AM Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne > Greetings - I'm excited about the opportunity to communicate with others > teaching/writing about the civil rights movement. My own interest is in > thinking/teaching/talking about the civil rights movement in a more > non-linear fashion. I think of the movement as something without a > definable beginning or end, but with many historic and/or public moments; > as a movement ebbing and flowing in different ways in different parts of > the country and in different segments of the population. Because of this > complexity, I do sometimes find it hard to give students a real "flavor" of > what the movement was/is all about. To get to the individual experience, I > use oral histories. I look for oral histories not of the stars, but of > people who were moved to participate in small and big ways out of their own > sense of self, morality, and/or place. I would also be very interested in > materials people use. > > Lately, I've been thinking about how people are defining a civil rights > movement today. For example, the AFL-CIO and others have sponsored a > Freedom Ride in support of immigrants rights, workplace rights, etc. which > will culminate in a rally in NYC this Saturday, October 4. It's being > publicized as the "new" civil rights movement. Any thoughts on this? > > I currently teach sociology & legal studies at Empire State College in NY, > where right now, probably at least half of my students are New York City > police officers. So teaching about the civil rights movement is > particularly challenging, to say the least! > > My academic research involves a civil rights organization that was > incorporated in 1964 and I'm aiming to get an article out for what would > have been it's fortieth anniversary, had it survived. It is rooted in a > series of oral histories I conducted several years ago. The organization > was the Law Students Civil Rights Research Council which facilitated law > student involvement in civil rights movements throughout the United States. > I have a particular interest in the participation of the legal community > (lawyers, law students, legal workers) in the civil rights movement through > the sixties, seventies and eighties. > > I'm interested to hear what others are doing and thinking about, too! > > Amy Ruth Tobol > Assistant Professor > Empire State College > 223 Store Hill Rd. > Old Westbury, NY 11568 > 516-997-4700 x141 > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 2 Oct 2003 06:30:33 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Nishani Frazier Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM In-Reply-To: <5.1.0.14.2.20031001173826.00a6ecf0@emailin> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="0-2072528748-1065101433=:45530" --0-2072528748-1065101433=:45530 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii For a quick look at a few primary sources, I would suggest that you look at oral histories that speak about the Deacons for Defense. Many of the members of the Deacons were former vets - though not just of WWII - but the Korean War as well. There are also FBI documents available through FOIA reading room website at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm. Although, I would use a fist full of salt for any FBI document that you use. Nishani Frazier --------------------------------- Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-2072528748-1065101433=:45530 Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii

For a quick look at a few primary sources, I would suggest that you look at oral histories that speak about the Deacons for Defense.  Many of the members of the Deacons were former vets - though not just of WWII - but the Korean War as well.  There are also FBI documents available through FOIA reading room website at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm.  Although, I would use a fist full of salt for any FBI document that you use.

 

Nishani Frazier


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The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-2072528748-1065101433=:45530-- ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 2 Oct 2003 04:59:45 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Donna L. Sharer" Subject: Re: Civil Rights Movement in the North MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit I'm a high school teacher in Philadelphia, PA so I do not have the expertise of a professor. Nevertheless, I include a lot of local history when teaching different themes in US history. For example, last year one of my classes completed a project on School Desegregation in Philadelphia. (This followed a 2001-2002 historical inquiry project on our school's history. Our school was moved in 1957 to a new location. The school was an integrated school - about 50% African Am and 50% Euro-Am. to a nearly 100% Euro Am school (there were 30 African American students out of 4000 in 1968. Now the school, a neighborhood school, is very ethnically diverse because the neighborhood demographics have changed). If you're interested in the project on school deseg. in Phila. - www.geocities.com/sevperiod2003 Fortunately, Philadelphia has a rich history in Civil Rights (life continued past 1776!) . I'm sure other high school teacher can use local history as a way to begin / conclude a unit on civil rights. Donna Sharer Phila., PA This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 2 Oct 2003 11:55:50 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Damon Freeman Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne Comments: To: Heather Lewis In-Reply-To: <20031001222849.21735.qmail@web10208.mail.yahoo.com> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Greetings, I am completing a dissertation at Indiana University (and now teaching at the University of Alabama) on Kenneth Clark, the well-known psychologist involved in Brown and with the concept of psychological damage. My research interests are not solely with Clark, but more with the broader intellectual history of the movement. What did activists mean by civil rights, desegregation and Black Power? How should power be defined? What is the meaning of education and social change? I am using Clark as a prism to answer these and other questions; in so doing, I hope to explore the intellectual boundaries of what was possible. In answer to Heather Lewis's point below, one could argue that the liberal coalition never existed, or at least it was a tension-filled and problematic one. Clark explored this in a 1946 essay in Commentary magazine ("Candor About Negro-Jewish Relations"). Others have certainly touched on this as well, such as Ralph Ellison's critique of An American Dilemma. This spring, I will be teaching a course on "Black Power in America"; I hope to analyze these issues with my students. One thing I'd like to add: 1 January 2004 is the 200th anniversary of Haitian independence. Increasingly, scholars have looked to the Reconstruction Period as the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement, but if we're talking about ideas of freedom, blackness, and diaspora, then we could conceivably begin with the Haitian Revolution. Are there any commemorative events planned by scholars in this country to honor Haitian independence in the same way that we are celebrating Brown and the '64 Civil Rights Act? If not, does that say anything about our intellectual framework? Regards, Damon Freeman Bankhead Fellow Department of History The University of Alabama Quoting Heather Lewis : > Greetings from New York University where I am a doctoral student in > the history of education. My dissertation is on the community > control movement in New York City and its aftermath in the 1970s and > 1980s. I am in full agreement with Patrick Jones regarding the need > for more research on the northern civil rights movement; broadly > defined. I am interested in discussing the following aspects of the > northern movement: > > 1. How can we historicize current theories about the outcomes and > legacies of social movements in the North (Tilly, McAdam, Giugni). > > 2. If we are to address the reductive tropes of the northern > movement by telling a different story, don't we also need to address > the reasons these ahistorical tropes have dominated popular and > scholarly accounts of the movement in the North? What role has memory > played in reproducing distorted accounts of the black power movement? > Why do declension theories usually conclude that black power > represented the end of the "liberal coalition" in the North? In > many instances, opponents of Northern movements defended their civil > rights "records" by holding up their support for the Southern civil > rights movement. > > Thanks to everyone who put this list together. This is a much-needed > conversation. > > Heather > > , tPatrick Jones wrote: > Greetings from Allegheny College. I am a new faculty member here, > recently > moved from Madison, Wisconsin, where I completed my PhD with Tim > Tyson. My > dissertation and current book project is on race relations and civil > rights > insurgency in Milwaukee from the late-50s through 1970. As a result, > I > would like to suggest one addition to Prof. Payne's intriguing list > of > possible avenues for us to take. My work is aimed at the northern > movement > which has been too often ignored or reduced to a couple of simple > tropes: urban rebellion, violence, the decline of the movement, etc. > From > my own work and the work of others (Komozi Woodard, Jeanne > Theoharris, > Martha Biondi and more) it is becoming increasingly clear that there > was a > lot more going on in the North than we have traditionally given > credit. I > hope that we might broaden our discussion to also include areas > outside the > South! > > Thanks and I look forward to this ongoing discussion! > > Best, > Patrick Jones > > > At 10:42 AM 10/1/2003 -0400, you wrote: > >I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members > of the > >forum should > >feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to > get > >things started, I am going > >to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as > anything > >more than > >suggestions. > > > >We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth > anniversary > >of Brown v. Board, > >the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the > fortieth of > >the Mississippi > >Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey > Schwerner, > >James Chaney and > >Andrew Goodman. The year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of > the > >Selma march and the > >1965 Voting Rights Act. How should these events be remembered? How > >should they be > >framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated? I > >suspect that some of you > >will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical > strategy > >and that's fine. You > >should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are > >teachable moments in the > >sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and > thus, > >for a while, may be > >more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means > should > >this preclude > >earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so > forth. > >In fact, I'm curious > >about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in > the > >March on > >Washington. > > > >For those not interested in events, there are any number of > themes/issues > >about which we > >might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement, > >redbaiting, nonviolence, > >organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international > dimensions of > >the movement, > >school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down > versus > >bottom-up conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the > Federal > >government, > >liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the > tendency, > >which used to be > >pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the > movement > >as "a great victory > >for all Americans." There is no doubt that the movement was a great > step > >forward in many > >ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have > complicated > >consequences. We > >need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly. > > > >I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works > best in > >your teaching? What > >lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there > >audiovisual products that > >you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that > emphasize > >the role of > >"ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to > think more > >deeply about > >what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of > gender > >in the movement? > > > >What changes have you made in your teaching since you started > teaching > >this material? How > >do your students react to this material? Does their race or > ethnicity > >make any difference in > >their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in > the way > >students respond > >to you? Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to > present? > >Have you had any > >reactions from parents? > > > >Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood > broadly > >or narrowly. In > >the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened > between > >the mid-fifties > >and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation > supportive of > >Black political and > >social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something > that > >began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something > that > >reflected a full > >range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the > desire for > >self-assertion and > >self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much > as it > >did nonviolence. > >People should feel free to raise questions about all of it. > > > >Again, I am looking forward to the conversation. > > > >In struggle, > > > >Charles Payne > > > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web > site at > >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. > History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site > at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. > History. > > --------------------------------- > Do you Yahoo!? > The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site > at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. > History. -- This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 2 Oct 2003 15:11:22 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Trimiew, Oliver" Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable I have tried to work hard at finding a way for students to care about = past events. Usually I find myself moving from the known (their world = now) to the unknown (the civil rights era). I am careful not to distort = either the past or the current situation in an attempt to "be relevant." = Teaching moments for me, come when I can make those significant bridges = in understanding common experiences. The young man with Afro sitting in = the back of my class today is probably not wearing his hair that way for = the same reasons I did 30+ years ago, but it does give us something in = common to discuss when talking about the black power movement of this = era. A personal approach to history can have its benefits...and its = limitations. -----Original Message----- From: Charles Payne [SMTP:enoonan@GC.CUNY.EDU] Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 10:43 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Opening Statement from Charles Payne I am very much looking forward to this month's discussion. Members of = the forum should feel free to raise whatever issues are important to them. Just to get = things started, I am going to suggest some possible topics but these should not be taken as = anything more than suggestions. We have a series of teachable moments coming up: the fiftieth = anniversary of Brown v. Board, the fortieth of the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights acts, the fortieth = of the Mississippi Summer Project, which included the assassinations of Mickey Schwerner, = James Chaney and Andrew Goodman. The year 2005 will be the fortieth anniversary of the = Selma march and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. How should these events be remembered? How = should they be framed for students of various ages? Are some of them overrated? I = suspect that some of you will not be comfortable with focusing on events as a pedagogical = strategy and that's fine. You should say that and that will give us our first argument. These are = teachable moments in the sense that students will be hearing about them outside of class and = thus, for a while, may be more than normally curious about some of them. Still, by no means = should this preclude earlier events: Montgomery, the sit-ins, the Freedom Rides and so = forth. In fact, I'm curious about how members of the Forum saw the recent flurry of interest in the = March on Washington. For those not interested in events, there are any number of = themes/issues about which we might raise similar questions: the radicalization of the movement, = redbaiting, nonviolence, organizing versus mobilizing, nationalism, the international dimensions = of the movement, school desegregation and its consequences, direct action, top-down = versus bottom-up conceptions of history, interracialism, the role of the = Federal government, liberalism, triumphalism. By triumphalism, all I refer to is the = tendency, which used to be pretty much the standard in US history texts, as presenting the = movement as "a great victory for all Americans." There is no doubt that the movement was a great = step forward in many ways but I always assume that events of this magnitude have complicated = consequences. We need a more precise accounting of what went well and what poorly. I would also be interested in talking about teaching. What works best = in your teaching? What lessons or approaches? Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there = audiovisual products that you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that = emphasize the role of "ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think = more deeply about what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of = gender in the movement? What changes have you made in your teaching since you started teaching = this material? How do your students react to this material? Does their race or ethnicity = make any difference in their reaction? Does your race or ethnicity make any difference in the = way students respond to you? Are some parts of the history especially ticklish to present? = Have you had any reactions from parents? Lastly, a point about definition. The movement can be understood = broadly or narrowly. In the narrower conceptions, it is refers to something that happened = between the mid-fifties and the mid-sixties, aimed at generating Federal legislation supportive = of Black political and social inclusion. I think of the movement more broadly: as something = that began well before the 1950s and extended long after it, as something = that reflected a full range of Black aspiration, including economic inclusion and the desire = for self-assertion and self-determination, as something that included Black Power as much as = it did nonviolence. People should feel free to raise questions about all of it. Again, I am looking forward to the conversation. In struggle, Charles Payne This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site = at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 3 Oct 2003 08:10:18 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jennifer Brooks Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM In-Reply-To: <20031002133033.46194.qmail@web14807.mail.yahoo.com> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Hello, Anyone interested in locating primary sources that address the impact of World War Two Veterans on the CRM, particularly if you want to extend the timeline back into the postwar 1940s, might consider the Southern Regional Council's Veterans Services Project records. The SRC sent WWII veterans, mostly African American ones, into each of the southern states immediately after the Second World War to assess how well southern black veterans were utilizing their GI Bill benefits. Their reports and letters back to George Mitchell provide a searing record of discrimination at all levels of government. This story undermines assumptions about the universal positive impact of the GI Bill on the soldiers and sailors who served in the Second World War. The evidence of discrimination against these men after the war is incontrovertible. I have used these records successfully in the classroom to bridge the New Deal Era to the Brown era for students, and to provide a context for why the CRM was necessary. The personal accounts of discrimination in these records, along with newspaper accounts of violence against black veterans, such as Isaac Woodward in South Carolina, paint a clear portrait for even the most apathetic of students. These records are located on microfilm--you can access information on how to find them through the Atlanta University History Center in Atlanta, Georgia. Also, a few months ago I did a search on the web and found a site with photos and documents of black veteran Isaac Woodward and his case in the postwar 1940s [he was blinded by white policemen in South Carolina over a dispute on public transportation just after being discharged from the military, while still in his uniform]--this is a great case to use with students. I don't remember the web address but a search by his name ought to turn it up quickly. Other authors who discuss black veterans and the CRM: Michael Honey John Dittmer, Local People James Cobb, Most Southern Place on Earth Neil McMillen, Remaking Dixie Thanks, Jennifer Brooks Associate Professor of Commons and History Tusculum College P.O. 5057 Greeneville, TN 37743 jbrooks@tusculum.edu At 06:30 AM 10/2/03 -0700, you wrote: > at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm Although, I would use a fist full of >salt for any FBI document that you use. Nishani Frazier Do you Yahoo!? > The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is >sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 3 Oct 2003 11:20:11 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kate Kerman Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM In-Reply-To: <3.0.6.32.20031003081018.0108b470@tusculum.edu> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Dear folks, Another element to look into in terms of WWII and the Civil Rights Movement would be those men and their wives who did not go to war - the conscientious objectors who were in work camps or prison during the war, many of whom were active in the civil rights movement later on. Kate Kerman Peer Mediation Coordinator Keene Public High School Keene, NH This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 3 Oct 2003 16:25:06 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kay Rout Subject: Response to 1 question. Mime-version: 1.0 Content-type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit Someone asked: > Why do declension theories usually conclude that black power > represented the end of the "liberal coalition" in the North? I just used a videotape on this issue last week. It is a CBS News report from 1966 entitled, "Black Power and White Backlash." it details not only the statements of Stokely Carmichael and similarly inclined people, but shows in graphic form the results of several polls comparing support for the CRM among white LIBERALS (self-styled)over 3 different years, ending with 1966. In just a few years, support dropped from 70% to 30%, roughly, almost entirely due to the movement of the focus of the CRM from the south to the north. Think of "Love me, I'm a Liberal": in each case, when issues were distant the speaker (singer) supports the cause; when it moves close to home, he reverses. That's classic. The videotape is readily available, and the stats, rather than theory or rumor, provide proof of the tendency the person was asking about. I should state that I am very biased in favor of original sources, especially for basic courses in the CRM, precisely in order to avoid distortions that various theoretical approaches can yield. Kay Rout, Writing, Rhetoric and American Cultures Michigan State University East Lansing This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 3 Oct 2003 16:45:54 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kay Rout Subject: A Sixties Course--FYI Mime-version: 1.0 Content-type: multipart/mixed; boundary="B_3148044359_4455418" > This message is in MIME format. Since your mail reader does not understand this format, some or all of this message may not be legible. --B_3148044359_4455418 Content-type: text/plain; charset="ISO-8859-1" Content-transfer-encoding: quoted-printable "Roisman, Florence W" . Use citations! 2) Use historical research, including anything used in class, to verify whether the film is actually accurate or not. If it=B9s not, figure out why not. Try to discern the director=B9s intent. Use citations! 3) Keep the focus on the film, though. Don=B9t go off on a tangent! Do evaluate it as art, not just as information. =20 =20 =20 =20 Syllabus =20 Tuesday, August 26: Intro to the course. Lecture on the period 1954-1960. Tape: =B3Elvis 1956,=B2 1 hour. For your own background, read M.L.King, Stride Toward Freedom, Jack Kerouac, On the Road, Paul Goodman, Growing up Absurd= , Allen Ginsburg=B9s long poem, =B3Howl,=B2 any Lenny Bruce albums. =20 Thursday, August 28: In Cleaver, read =B3On Becoming=B2 and =B3Soul on Ice.=B2 In McMahon, 11-14 + Ho Chi Minh, 18-20, and the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, p. 22-4. In ch. 3, 57-60. Also, Intro, 87-8, Eisenhower, 90= , Giap, 91, Geneva Accords, 92-3, + 98-100. We will see segments of Eyes on the Prize on the murder of Emmett Till and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. In addition to the readings for any given day, there will always be extra audi= o and visual materials brought in to reinforce the themes and deepen your knowledge of the era. =20 Tues, Sept. 2: Election JFK, sit-ins and Freedom Rides --1961, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, Snick) founded as an offshoot of MLK=B9s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). JFK and Diem, 132-7. (Puppet government of S. Vietnam; Madame Nhu; MSU involvement). Formation National Liberation Front in Vietnam, McMahon 273-288. =20 Thurs., 9/4: Tape: Assassination Medgar Evers, 6/63; March on Washington, 8/63; Birmingham Church bombing, 9/63. =20 Tues. 9/9: JFK: war policy and assassination, 11/63. =20 Thurs. 9/11: The Beatles, excerpt from The Compleat Beatles; excerpt from =B3Berkeley in the Sixties=B2 on Free Speech Movement. (1964) =20 Tues. 9/16: In chapter 6, read Intro to unit, p. 158, Reassessment, 1964 o= n p. 159; Tonkin Gulf resolution, August, 1964, 162-8; LBJ explains the escalation of the war at Johns Hopkins, 165 ff; Ball, p. 171. Read in McMahon A Soldier=B9s Perspective (Caputo), 234. =B3Freedom Summer=B2 killings. Vietnam sites to check out: Overview Vietnam http://vietnam.vassar.edu/overview.html =20 Victory in Vietnam (Northern) http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/privic.html =20 PBS Site: Battlefield Vietnam http://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/ =20 The History Guy: The Wars of Vietnam (listing by dates) http://www.historyguy.com/wars_of_vietnam.htm =20 Vietnam Veterans Web site http://www.vietvet.org =20 Vietnam Veterans Against the War (see link on the history of the war) http://www.vvaw.org/ =20 The full text of the Winter Soldier testimonies are available online at the Sixties Project web site: =20 http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winte= r _Soldier/WS_entry.html =20 Within the Sixties Project, go to Primary Documents and read Rules of the Black Panther Party (you'll have your own copy of the platform) plus the statement of the Black Student Unions around the USA. Scrolling downward, find John Kerry's statement about Vietnam in Congress. He was part of Vietnam Vets Against the War, but this statement wasn't made in Detroit. =20 Thurs. 9/18: Malcolm X bio film. In Cleaver, read =B3Initial Reactions on th= e Assassination of Malcolm X=B2(1965). See http://www.noi.org/ =20 Tues. 9/23: First half of rockumentary on Bob Dylan, Don=B9t Look Back (1965)= . Plus his switch from acoustic to electric, and the favorite song of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, started Oct. 1966. =20 Tues. 9/23: Tapes and lecture: Selma, Alabama (1965) and King. Black Power and White Backlash: King=B9s response. =20 Thurs. 9/25: Founding of the Black Panther Party. In Cleaver, =B3The White Race and its Heroes=B2 and =B3Convalescence.=B2 King comes out against the war: g= o to http://www.stanford.edu/group/king and select the speech for April 4, 1967, or see it in McMahon, with other anti-war comments, 431-6 ff. =20 Tues., 9/30; Hourly Exam. (First hour only) Monterey Pop Festival, 1967: Hendrix, Redding, Joplin, The Who, The Mommas and the Papas. 50 min. of The Doors, =B3Dance on Fire=B2 =20 Thurs 10/2: Detroit Riots, 1967. /=B2Standing in the Shadows of Motown=B2 =20 Tues 10/7: Begin 1968. This is what is known as a watershed year, in which everything changed. Read all of chapter 10 in McMahon, =B3The Tet Offensive.=B2 314-335. LBJ tape, resignation of McNamara as Secretary of Defense, appointment Clark Clifford. =20 Thurs. 10/9: The Kerner Commission Report on the riots, 1965-1967, released March 1968; LBJ material. =20 Tues. 10/14: Tape: =B3Fields of Fire=B2 on how the 60=B9s affected sports, including Ali and the Mexico City Olympics. =20 Thurs. 10/16: Oliver Stone film: =B3Assassination,=B2 on the killings of MLK, April 4, 1968, and Robert Kennedy, June 6, 1968. =20 =20 Tues. 10/21: Democratic Convention, Chicago, 1968; Abbie Hoffman; Trial of the Chicago Eight. Campaign of Eldridge Cleaver for the Presidency. (Th= e Hippie musical, =B3Hair,=B2 opens on Broadway, becomes a film in mid-seventies.= ) =20 Thurs. 10/23: Student takeover of Columbia, spring =B968, Union at Cornell, spring 1969. Film on 1968. =20 Tues. 10/28: Film-=B3Standing in the Shadows of Motown=B2 =20 Thurs. 10/30: THE MOVIE PAPER IS DUE. Easy Rider=8BDennis Hopper directed and starred in this film that introduced Jack Nicholson. This is the definitive film of the end of the 60=B9s paranoia; it brings the motorcycle theme from The Wild Ones to its inevitable conclusion. The soundtrack features my favorite tune from the decade: =B3Born to be Wild=B2 by Steppenwolf, currently featured in a Pepsi ad. (What does Captain America (Peter Fonda) mean when he says near the end, =B3We blew it=B2?) =20 Tues.11/4: Begin Kesey novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo=B9s Nest. Read pt. 1 only. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/10/arts/10KESE.html http://www.cnn.com/2000/TECH/computing/07/21/kesey/index.html =20 Thurs. 11/6: Part two of Cuckoo=B9s Nest =20 Tues. 11/11: Part three of novel =20 Thurs. 11/14: Part 4, plus Test in class on the novel (not the film! You have been warned). (Includes objective portion, for practice on final.) =20 Tues. 11/18: Woodstock, 7/69; The Who, Joan Baez, John Sebastian of The Loving Spoonful, Hendrix=B9s Vietnam-inspired national anthem, Country Joe an= d the Fish. The culmination of the soon to be ended era of peace and love. Police killings of Black Panthers in Chicago, 12/69. =20 Thurs. 11/20: Read in McMahon, pp. 386-99, Nixon=B9s policy. The Cambodian =B3Incursion=B2- April 30, 1970: Read in McMahon, Nixon p. 399f; Kissinger, 402-3, Provisional Government statement, 404. Small=B9s essay from top page 411 to mid 415, =B3=8Abegan to cry.=B2 And DeBenedetti and Chatfield, top 451-459. =20 Tues. 11/25: Kent State and Jackson State, May 4 and 14, 1970. =B3Four Dead i= n Ohio.=B2 Deaths Joplin and Hendrix. Radicalism in the 70=B9s: Weatherman. A Vietnam Vet Opposes the War, 1971. p. 442-5. http://lists.village.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources/Primary/Winte= r _Soldier/WS_entry.html =20 Thurs. 11/27: Thanksgiving =20 Tues. 12/2: Endgame of the war: the Paris Peace Accords, 1973, p.477, plus pp.481-492. Film: =B3The Fall of Saigon=B2 =20 =20 Thurs. 12/4: Read in McMahon, 515-52. Plus Young, 525-32, and Issaca, 533-8= . And http://thewall-usa.com/ and http://www.virtualwall.org/. Second Hour: Meditation in the 60=B9s: Alan Watt and transcendental meditation (use it to relax). If you are too juvenile or shallow to be able to deal with one hou= r of meditation, stay home. 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//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////8BAP7/ AgABAP////8GCQIAAAAAAMAAAAAAAABGGAAAAE1pY3Jvc29mdCBXb3JkIERvY3VtZW50AP7/ //9OQjZXEAAAAFdvcmQuRG9jdW1lbnQuOAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA== --B_3148044354_4431512-- --B_3148044359_4455418-- ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 3 Oct 2003 17:29:27 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kay Rout Subject: Re: Teaching civil rights In-Reply-To: <5.2.1.1.2.20031001180704.00a304c0@pop.mindspring.com> Mime-version: 1.0 Content-type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit > In the past few years, because of works by Charles Payne and Patricia > Sullivan among others, I have dramatically changed the way I teach the > civil rights movement. I tend to see the period following Reconstruction > as waves of activism followed by responses. These waves of activism > ultimately built into what we now call the civil rights movement from the > 1950s to the present. But it was built on actions of African Americans > from Reconstruction on. For example, in Georgia, there were several > activists for black equality. Some even formed an equal rights > organization in the 1870s and 1880s. Civil rights, then, becomes a theme > of my survey, U. S. History from 1865-the present. It's not simply class, > race, and gender. It's about power, rights, and empowerment. > Any thoughts? > > Ann Short Chirhart > I agree with the above. However, one huge thing happened that jump-started the CRM in the 50's: The Brown v. Board of Ed. decision. We can't take a thing like that for granted. In all previous decades, there may have been activism, but it was trying to go *against* rather than *with* the prevailing federal law as defined and justified in Plessey v. Ferguson (1896). After May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court switched sides! Suddenly every element of segregation and hence of discrimination in general was against the Constitution, whereas before it had been in conformity with it. I believe, having been 12 at the time, that the Supreme Court itself started the revolution in the minds of younger whites, and surely affected the minds of white racists. (I believe the guys who killed Emmett Till in 1955 said specifically that they were doing it as their response to desegregation.) As to how it affected the minds of black people, none of whom I knew in 1954, I can only point to Eldridge Cleaver's Soul on Ice (1968), in which he says that before 1954 black people "lived in an atmosphere of Novocain." He says that he suddenly began to examine what the decision meant, and to be repelled and angered by the big debate that followed, "what to do about US." Can he have been alone? So while it's clear that there was precedent for activism and protesting, I believe that Brown v. Board of Ed. of Topeka has to be considered a watershed event. Kay Rout, WRAC, MSU, East Lansing,MI This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 3 Oct 2003 23:57:45 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Pete Haro Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM Mime-version: 1.0 Content-type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit Jennifer: Not to get off topic, but in light of your research, how do you present the GI Bill to your students? Just curious. Pete Haro, MA. ---------- >From: Jennifer Brooks >To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU >Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM >Date: Fri, Oct 3, 2003, 5:10 AM > > Hello, > > Anyone interested in locating primary sources that address the impact of > World War Two Veterans on the CRM, particularly if you want to extend the > timeline back into the postwar 1940s, might consider the Southern Regional > Council's Veterans Services Project records. The SRC sent WWII veterans, > mostly African American ones, into each of the southern states immediately > after the Second World War to assess how well southern black veterans were > utilizing their GI Bill benefits. Their reports and letters back to George > Mitchell provide a searing record of discrimination at all levels of > government. This story undermines assumptions about the universal positive > impact of the GI Bill on the soldiers and sailors who served in the Second > World War. The evidence of discrimination against these men after the war > is incontrovertible. > > I have used these records successfully in the classroom to bridge the New > Deal Era to the Brown era for students, and to provide a context for why > the CRM was necessary. The personal accounts of discrimination in these > records, along with newspaper accounts of violence against black veterans, > such as Isaac Woodward in South Carolina, paint a clear portrait for even > the most apathetic of students. > > These records are located on microfilm--you can access information on how > to find them through the Atlanta University History Center in Atlanta, > Georgia. > > Also, a few months ago I did a search on the web and found a site with > photos and documents of black veteran Isaac Woodward and his case in the > postwar 1940s [he was blinded by white policemen in South Carolina over a > dispute on public transportation just after being discharged from the > military, while still in his uniform]--this is a great case to use with > students. I don't remember the web address but a search by his name ought > to turn it up quickly. > > Other authors who discuss black veterans and the CRM: > > Michael Honey > John Dittmer, Local People > James Cobb, Most Southern Place on Earth > Neil McMillen, Remaking Dixie > > Thanks, > > Jennifer Brooks > Associate Professor of Commons and History > Tusculum College > P.O. 5057 > Greeneville, TN 37743 > jbrooks@tusculum.edu > > > At 06:30 AM 10/2/03 -0700, you wrote: >> at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm Although, I would use a fist full of >>salt for any FBI document that you use. Nishani Frazier Do you Yahoo!? >> The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is >>sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at > http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Sat, 4 Oct 2003 06:12:50 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jack Dougherty Subject: about portrayals of CRM decline Comments: cc: Heather Lewis In-Reply-To: Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary=Apple-Mail-75-1055824702 Mime-Version: 1.0 (Apple Message framework v552) --Apple-Mail-75-1055824702 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed Heather Lewis raises some interesting questions, and I'd like to focus on the second one about "declension theories" of the civil rights movement (and this may apply to the entire US, not just the North). She writes: >> 2. If we are to address the reductive tropes of the northern >> movement by telling a different story, don't we also need to address >> the reasons these ahistorical tropes have dominated popular and >> scholarly accounts of the movement in the North? What role has memory >> played in reproducing distorted accounts of the black power movement? >> Why do declension theories usually conclude that black power >> represented the end of the "liberal coalition" in the North? In >> many instances, opponents of Northern movements defended their civil >> rights "records" by holding up their support for the Southern civil >> rights movement. Heather, would you please identify some examples of these declension theories in popular or scholarly accounts, to help enrich the discussion for all? I've been fascinated by how some civil rights history texts (especially those written for broader audiences) portray the decline of the movement in very abrupt terms. For example, Harvard Sitkoff's very readable book, The Struggle for Black Equality, attempts to pinpoint the exact week of this complex national transformation, by juxtaposing LBJ's signing of the Voting Rights Act versus the Watts riot in early August, 1965. I write about this "abandonment narrative," both its prevalence and its severe limitations, in my forthcoming book, More Than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee (UNC Press, 2004). Several other authors, such as William Van Deburg, New Day in Babylon, and Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within A Nation, have written related criticisms about popularized accounts of the rise of the Black power movement. Is this what you mean by "declension theories"? Or do you have other examples in mind that refer more directly to the Black power movement as the end of an (alleged) post-WWII liberal-labor-black coalition? Jack Dougherty Trinity College, Hartford CT jack.dougherty@trincoll.edu http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/educ/dougherty.htm This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --Apple-Mail-75-1055824702 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Type: text/enriched; charset=US-ASCII Heather Lewis raises some interesting questions, and I'd like to focus on the second one about "declension theories" of the civil rights movement (and this may apply to the entire US, not just the North). She writes: 2. If we are to address the reductive tropes of the northern movement by telling a different story, don't we also need to address the reasons these ahistorical tropes have dominated popular and scholarly accounts of the movement in the North? What role has memory played in reproducing distorted accounts of the black power movement? Why do declension theories usually conclude that black power represented the end of the "liberal coalition" in the North? In many instances, opponents of Northern movements defended their civil rights "records" by holding up their support for the Southern civil rights movement. Heather, would you please identify some examples of these declension theories in popular or scholarly accounts, to help enrich the discussion for all? I've been fascinated by how some civil rights history texts (especially those written for broader audiences) portray the decline of the movement in very abrupt terms. For example, Harvard Sitkoff's very readable book, The Struggle for Black Equality, attempts to pinpoint the exact week of this complex national transformation, by juxtaposing LBJ's signing of the Voting Rights Act versus the Watts riot in early August, 1965. I write about this "abandonment narrative," both its prevalence and its severe limitations, in my forthcoming book, More Than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee (UNC Press, 2004). Several other authors, such as William Van Deburg, New Day in Babylon, and Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within A Nation, have written related criticisms about popularized accounts of the rise of the Black power movement. Is this what you mean by "declension theories"? Or do you have other examples in mind that refer more directly to the Black power movement as the end of an (alleged) post-WWII liberal-labor-black coalition? Jack Dougherty Trinity College, Hartford CT jack.dougherty@trincoll.edu http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/educ/dougherty.htm --Apple-Mail-75-1055824702-- ========================================================================= Date: Sat, 4 Oct 2003 06:31:03 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jack Dougherty Subject: Teaching civil rights In-Reply-To: Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary=Apple-Mail-77-1056917705 Mime-Version: 1.0 (Apple Message framework v552) --Apple-Mail-77-1056917705 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed On this strand about teaching civil rights, I've been impressed by this new edited volume: Julie Buckner Armstrong, Susan Hult Edwards, Houston Bryan Roberson, and Rhonda Y. Williams, eds., Teaching the American Civil Rights Movement: Freedom's Bittersweet Song (New York: Routledge, 2002). In the introduction, Patricia Sullivan and Waldo Martin criticize the predominant "Montgomery to Memphis" framework that "has taken on an air of inevitability in the popular imagination," in part due to the popularized civil rights photographs that have inadvertently "frozen the movement in time." Sullivan and Martin introduce the chapters that follow (written by their former NEH summer seminar students) as works which "challenge the conventional or master narrative of civil rights history." Am very curious to hear more reactions on this theme. . . -Jack Dougherty Trinity College, Hartford CT jack.dougherty@trincoll.edu http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/educ/dougherty.htm This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --Apple-Mail-77-1056917705 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Type: text/enriched; charset=US-ASCII On this strand about teaching civil rights, I've been impressed by this new edited volume: PalatinoJulie Buckner Armstrong, Susan Hult Edwards, Houston Bryan Roberson, and Rhonda Y. Williams, eds., Teaching the American Civil Rights Movement: Freedom's Bittersweet Song (New York: Routledge, 2002). In the introduction, Patricia Sullivan and Waldo Martin criticize the predominant "Montgomery to Memphis" framework that "has taken on an air of inevitability in the popular imagination," in part due to the popularized civil rights photographs that have inadvertently "frozen the movement in time." Sullivan and Martin introduce the chapters that follow (written by their former NEH summer seminar students) as works which "challenge the conventional or master narrative of civil rights history." Am very curious to hear more reactions on this theme. . . -Jack Dougherty Trinity College, Hartford CT jack.dougherty@trincoll.edu http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/educ/dougherty.htm --Apple-Mail-77-1056917705-- ========================================================================= Date: Sat, 4 Oct 2003 12:14:16 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Susan Strickland Subject: on teachable moments MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0001_01C38A71.08220290" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0001_01C38A71.08220290 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_001_0002_01C38A71.08247390" ------=_NextPart_001_0002_01C38A71.08247390 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Fellow participants, I am very happy to have the opportunity to participate in this forum. I especially want to thank those who have already contributed bibliographic information on books, films and archival materials that can be used in the classroom. Knowing the areas educators are covering is very helpful. Equally helpful would be some feedback on student responses and your reactions. I teach high school in a very unique community in Prince George's County, MD. My school district was just recently released from court ordered desegregation though the community I serve is 98 percent African American. There is a rich local history that goes untouched in the classroom. Correspondingly, there exists in the memories of parents and grandparents, a pool of acrimony towards both state and local officials with regard to desegregation and funding issues. All of these facts lend to "teachable moments." I would agree with the comments suggesting the teaching of the Civil Rights Movement begins with Reconstruction, comes in waves, should focus on empowerment, and must give special impetus to the mind altering experience of the Brown case. To that I would add learning only begins when personal connections are made. The teaching begins with my students when they can relate the topic to their lived experience and concerns. Teenagers and college students as well, have a keen sense of what is fair and how decisions made by authority figures impact their space to operate freely. Most students can focus on and grasp the more obvious injustices of the past 100 years. Unless care is taken, that story can begin to sound like a "broken record" of abuse to which students will respond by rejecting the message. Therefore, I think it is most important in teaching Civil Rights to focus on primary material at the local, state, and federal level that provide examples of leadership, courage, commitment, and achievement but equally important: endurance, humility, compassion, and reconciliation. With appropriate balance, the teaching of the Civil Rights Movement goes beyond historical events, political victories, and "the greats", to a story of epic proportions that defines the human need to conquer personal and institutional evils to form community and find inner spirituality. To that end, I begin with Reconstruction with my students, forewarn them they will hear tales of hardship and injustice, and invite them to find through this maze the picture of communities and individuals reinventing themselves while a nation heals. The process defines what it is to live in a democratic country. (at least until recently.) I like to work in biographical material about state and local personages that illustrate larger themes. The Freedmen's Papers are great for one page "starter stories" in local history which illustrate the post war hardships facing black communities. The story of Maggie Lena Walker, in Richmond, Jeannie Deans, in Manassas, or Nana Burroughs in D.C. work to illustrate the period 1880 - 1930 of community based empowerment in the face of sizeable obstacles. I just finished reading Constance Curry's book, Silver Rights and believe it will work well as a point counterpoint to desegregation efforts in the 10th district of VA before and after the Brown decision. The story of womens groups and youth involvement often gets left out of the bigger picture but students find such stories relevant and engaging. Many school and community libraries have, for lack of a more accurate description, "picture books" of local history. The "This building this and that" in these books can be mined for images of segregation and economic hardship. A picture can be worth a thousand words. Younger college students and high school students respond very well to photo interpretation exercises that link the historical lesson with their lived experience. In this way connections are made, and real education begins. Just last evening I attended educators' night at the Smithsonian. Standing there with my African-American colleague (former army girl) we were both surprised to learn that Orville Wright had attended school in D.C. with Paul Dunbar. Everyone has taught these two men separately for their achievements in flight and literature - but now I intend to use them to illustrate the nuances of segregation locally. This discovery led to a teachable moment in which both my colleagues were open to hearing about local history. The experience began with a picture. This is what I mean when I would be so bold as to encourage such as esteemed gathering of researchers and educators assembled here to consider "keeping it real" for their students so the wealth of knowledge you have to impart can be internalized by those fortunate enough to take your classes. I hope to continue to learn of new sources through the generosity of those sharing on this forum. Of particular use to me would be on line sources of archival material that could be utilized in power point presentations by students and educators. If anyone is interested I would be happy to share the outline of the Forbearer Project I've done with my APUS students. It allows them to trace key historical events in the lives of a great grandparent. For students whose families participated in the Great Migration the sharing lends to phenomenal illustrations of the evolution of Civil Rights in America. Thanks to everyone for sharing. This forum has been a wonderful benefit, not just to my bank of teaching materials but to my personal quest for knowledge as well. Sincerely, Susan Cary Strickland Friendly High School Fort Washington, MD This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_001_0002_01C38A71.08247390 Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

= Fellow participants,

=  

= I am very happy to have the opportunity to participate in this forum.  I especially want to thank = those who have already contributed bibliographic information on books, films and = archival materials that can be used in the classroom.  Knowing the areas educators are = covering is very helpful.  Equally = helpful would be some feedback on student responses and your = reactions.

=  

= I teach high school in a very unique community in = Prince = George’s County, MD.  My school = district was just recently released from court ordered desegregation though the = community I serve is 98 percent African American.  There is a rich local history that goes untouched in the = classroom.  Correspondingly, there exists = in the memories of parents and grandparents, a pool of acrimony towards both = state and local officials with regard to desegregation and funding issues.  All of these facts lend to “teachable moments.”

=  

= I would agree with the comments suggesting the teaching of the Civil = Rights Movement begins with Reconstruction, comes in waves, should focus on empowerment, = and must give special impetus to the mind altering experience of the Brown case. =  To that I would add learning = only begins when personal connections are made.  The teaching begins with my students when they can relate the = topic to their lived experience and concerns.  Teenagers and college students as well, have a keen sense of what = is fair and how decisions made by authority figures impact their space to = operate freely.  Most students can = focus on and grasp the more obvious injustices of the past 100 years.  Unless care is taken, that = story can begin to sound like a “broken record” of abuse to which = students will respond by rejecting the message.  Therefore, I think it is most = important in teaching Civil Rights to focus on primary material at the local, = state, and federal level that provide examples of leadership, courage, commitment, = and achievement but equally important:  endurance, humility, compassion, and reconciliation.  With appropriate balance, the = teaching of the Civil Rights Movement goes beyond historical events, political victories, and “the greats”, to a story of epic proportions = that defines the human need to conquer personal and institutional evils to = form community and find inner spirituality.

=  

= To that end, I begin with Reconstruction with my students, forewarn them = they will hear tales of hardship and injustice, and invite them to find through = this maze the picture of communities and individuals reinventing themselves while = a nation heals.  The process = defines what it is to live in a democratic country.  (at = least until recently.)  I like to work = in biographical material about state and local personages that illustrate = larger themes.  The = Freedmen’s Papers are great for one page “starter stories” in local history = which illustrate the post war hardships facing black communities.  The story of Maggie Lena Walker, = in Richmond, Jeannie Deans, in Manassas, or Nana Burroughs in D.C. work to illustrate the period 1880 – 1930 of community based empowerment = in the face of sizeable obstacles.  = I just finished reading Constance Curry’s book, Silver Rights and = believe it will work well as a point counterpoint to desegregation efforts in = the 10th district of VA before and after the Brown decision.  The story of womens groups and = youth involvement often gets left out of the bigger picture but students find = such stories relevant and engaging.  

=

=  

= Many school and community libraries have, for lack of a more accurate = description, “picture books” of local history.  = The “This building this and that” in these books can be mined for images of segregation and economic hardship.  A picture can be worth a thousand words.  Younger college students and = high school students respond very well to photo interpretation exercises that link = the historical lesson with their lived experience.  In this way connections are = made, and real education begins.  = Just last evening I attended educators’ night at the Smithsonian.  Standing there with my = African-American colleague (former army girl) we were both surprised to learn that = Orville Wright had attended school in D.C. with Paul Dunbar.  Everyone has taught these two = men separately for their achievements in flight and literature – but = now I intend to use them to illustrate the nuances of segregation locally.  This discovery led to a = teachable moment in which both my colleagues were open to hearing about local history. =  The experience began with a = picture.  This is what I mean when I = would be so bold as to encourage such as esteemed gathering of researchers and = educators assembled here to consider “keeping it real” for their students so the = wealth of knowledge you have to impart can be internalized by those fortunate = enough to take your classes.  

=

=  

= I hope to continue to learn of new sources through the generosity of those = sharing on this forum.  Of particular = use to me would be on line sources of archival material that could be utilized in = power point presentations by students and educators.  If anyone is interested I would = be happy to share the outline of the Forbearer Project I’ve done with my = APUS students.  It allows them = to trace key historical events in the lives of a great grandparent.  For students whose families = participated in the Great Migration the sharing lends to phenomenal illustrations of = the evolution of Civil Rights in = America.

=  

= Thanks to everyone for sharing.  = This forum has been a wonderful benefit, not just to my bank of teaching materials = but to my personal quest for knowledge as = well.

=  

= Sincerely,

=  

= Susan Cary Strickland

Friendly = High = School

Fort Washington, = MD=

=  

=  

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am a professor of English at a small liberal arts college in Central = Florida and was wondering if you could send my the your outline of the = Forbearer Project. I am teaching a special topics class next semester = called Memoirs of the Movement and would like to assign my students such = a project. Thanks, Claudia Slate ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Susan Strickland=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Saturday, October 04, 2003 12:14 PM Subject: on teachable moments =20 Fellow participants, =20 I am very happy to have the opportunity to participate in this forum. = I especially want to thank those who have already contributed = bibliographic information on books, films and archival materials that = can be used in the classroom. Knowing the areas educators are covering = is very helpful. Equally helpful would be some feedback on student = responses and your reactions. =20 I teach high school in a very unique community in Prince George's = County, MD. My school district was just recently released from court = ordered desegregation though the community I serve is 98 percent African = American. There is a rich local history that goes untouched in the = classroom. Correspondingly, there exists in the memories of parents and = grandparents, a pool of acrimony towards both state and local officials = with regard to desegregation and funding issues. All of these facts = lend to "teachable moments." =20 I would agree with the comments suggesting the teaching of the Civil = Rights Movement begins with Reconstruction, comes in waves, should focus = on empowerment, and must give special impetus to the mind altering = experience of the Brown case. To that I would add learning only begins = when personal connections are made. The teaching begins with my = students when they can relate the topic to their lived experience and = concerns. Teenagers and college students as well, have a keen sense of = what is fair and how decisions made by authority figures impact their = space to operate freely. Most students can focus on and grasp the more = obvious injustices of the past 100 years. Unless care is taken, that = story can begin to sound like a "broken record" of abuse to which = students will respond by rejecting the message. Therefore, I think it = is most important in teaching Civil Rights to focus on primary material = at the local, state, and federal level that provide examples of = leadership, courage, commitment, and achievement but equally important: = endurance, humility, compassion, and reconciliation. With appropriate = balance, the teaching of the Civil Rights Movement goes beyond = historical events, political victories, and "the greats", to a story of = epic proportions that defines the human need to conquer personal and = institutional evils to form community and find inner spirituality. =20 To that end, I begin with Reconstruction with my students, forewarn = them they will hear tales of hardship and injustice, and invite them to = find through this maze the picture of communities and individuals = reinventing themselves while a nation heals. The process defines what = it is to live in a democratic country. (at least until recently.) I = like to work in biographical material about state and local personages = that illustrate larger themes. The Freedmen's Papers are great for one = page "starter stories" in local history which illustrate the post war = hardships facing black communities. The story of Maggie Lena Walker, in = Richmond, Jeannie Deans, in Manassas, or Nana Burroughs in D.C. work to = illustrate the period 1880 - 1930 of community based empowerment in the = face of sizeable obstacles. I just finished reading Constance Curry's = book, Silver Rights and believe it will work well as a point = counterpoint to desegregation efforts in the 10th district of VA before = and after the Brown decision. The story of womens groups and youth = involvement often gets left out of the bigger picture but students find = such stories relevant and engaging. =20 =20 Many school and community libraries have, for lack of a more accurate = description, "picture books" of local history. The "This building this = and that" in these books can be mined for images of segregation and = economic hardship. A picture can be worth a thousand words. Younger = college students and high school students respond very well to photo = interpretation exercises that link the historical lesson with their = lived experience. In this way connections are made, and real education = begins. Just last evening I attended educators' night at the = Smithsonian. Standing there with my African-American colleague (former = army girl) we were both surprised to learn that Orville Wright had = attended school in D.C. with Paul Dunbar. Everyone has taught these two = men separately for their achievements in flight and literature - but now = I intend to use them to illustrate the nuances of segregation locally. = This discovery led to a teachable moment in which both my colleagues = were open to hearing about local history. The experience began with a = picture. This is what I mean when I would be so bold as to encourage = such as esteemed gathering of researchers and educators assembled here = to consider "keeping it real" for their students so the wealth of = knowledge you have to impart can be internalized by those fortunate = enough to take your classes. =20 =20 I hope to continue to learn of new sources through the generosity of = those sharing on this forum. Of particular use to me would be on line = sources of archival material that could be utilized in power point = presentations by students and educators. If anyone is interested I = would be happy to share the outline of the Forbearer Project I've done = with my APUS students. It allows them to trace key historical events in = the lives of a great grandparent. For students whose families = participated in the Great Migration the sharing lends to phenomenal = illustrations of the evolution of Civil Rights in America. =20 Thanks to everyone for sharing. This forum has been a wonderful = benefit, not just to my bank of teaching materials but to my personal = quest for knowledge as well. =20 Sincerely, =20 Susan Cary Strickland Friendly High School Fort Washington, MD =20 =20 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site = at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_001_0008_01C38B58.07BB3C80 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Susan,
I am a professor of English at a small = liberal=20 arts college in Central Florida and was wondering if you could send my = the your=20 outline of the Forbearer Project.  I am teaching a special topics = class=20 next semester called Memoirs of the Movement and would like to assign my = students such a project.
Thanks,
Claudia Slate
----- Original Message -----
From:=20 Susan Strickland =
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Saturday, October 04, = 2003 12:14=20 PM
Subject: on teachable = moments

=20

Fellow=20 participants,

 

I=20 am very happy to have the opportunity to participate in this = forum.  I especially want to thank = those who=20 have already contributed bibliographic information on books, films and = archival materials that can be used in the classroom.  Knowing the areas educators = are=20 covering is very helpful.  = Equally=20 helpful would be some feedback on student responses and your=20 reactions.

 

I=20 teach high school in a very unique community in=20 Prince=20 George=92s=20 County, MD.  My school = district=20 was just recently released from court ordered desegregation though the = community I serve is 98 percent African American.  There is a rich local = history that=20 goes untouched in the classroom. =20 Correspondingly, there exists in the memories of parents and=20 grandparents, a pool of acrimony towards both state and local = officials with=20 regard to desegregation and funding issues.  All of these facts lend to = =93teachable=20 moments.=94

 

I=20 would agree with the comments suggesting the teaching of the Civil = Rights=20 Movement begins with Reconstruction, comes in waves, should focus on=20 empowerment, and must give special impetus to the mind altering = experience of=20 the Brown case.  To that = I would=20 add learning only begins when personal connections are made.  The teaching begins with my = students=20 when they can relate the topic to their lived experience and = concerns.  Teenagers and college = students as=20 well, have a keen sense of what is fair and how decisions made by = authority=20 figures impact their space to operate freely.  Most students can focus on = and grasp=20 the more obvious injustices of the past 100 years.  Unless care is taken, that = story can=20 begin to sound like a =93broken record=94 of abuse to which students = will respond=20 by rejecting the message.  Therefore, I think it is most = important=20 in teaching Civil Rights to focus on primary material at the local, = state, and=20 federal level that provide examples of leadership, courage, = commitment, and=20 achievement but equally important: =20 endurance, humility, compassion, and reconciliation.  With appropriate balance, = the teaching=20 of the Civil Rights Movement goes beyond historical events, political=20 victories, and =93the greats=94, to a story of epic proportions that = defines the=20 human need to conquer personal and institutional evils to form = community and=20 find inner spirituality.

 

To=20 that end, I begin with Reconstruction with my students, forewarn them = they=20 will hear tales of hardship and injustice, and invite them to find = through=20 this maze the picture of communities and individuals reinventing = themselves=20 while a nation heals.  = The process=20 defines what it is to live in a democratic country.  (at least=20 until recently.)  I like = to work=20 in biographical material about state and local personages that = illustrate=20 larger themes.  The = Freedmen=92s=20 Papers are great for one page =93starter stories=94 in local history = which=20 illustrate the post war hardships facing black communities.  The story of Maggie Lena = Walker, in=20 Richmond, Jeannie Deans, in Manassas, or Nana Burroughs in D.C. work = to=20 illustrate the period 1880 =96 1930 of community based empowerment in = the face=20 of sizeable obstacles.  = I just=20 finished reading Constance Curry=92s book, Silver Rights and = believe it=20 will work well as a point counterpoint to desegregation efforts in the = 10th district of VA before and after the Brown = decision.  The story of womens groups = and youth=20 involvement often gets left out of the bigger picture but students = find such=20 stories relevant and engaging.  

 

Many=20 school and community libraries have, for lack of a more accurate = description,=20 =93picture books=94 of local history. =20 The =93This building this and that=94 in these books can be = mined for=20 images of segregation and economic hardship.  A picture can be worth a = thousand=20 words.  Younger college = students=20 and high school students respond very well to photo interpretation = exercises=20 that link the historical lesson with their lived experience.  In this way connections are = made, and=20 real education begins.  = Just last=20 evening I attended educators=92 night at the Smithsonian.  Standing there with my=20 African-American colleague (former army girl) we were both surprised = to learn=20 that Orville Wright had attended school in D.C. with Paul Dunbar.  Everyone has taught these = two men=20 separately for their achievements in flight and literature =96 but now = I intend=20 to use them to illustrate the nuances of segregation locally.  This discovery led to a = teachable=20 moment in which both my colleagues were open to hearing about local = history.=20  The experience began = with a=20 picture.  This is what I = mean when=20 I would be so bold as to encourage such as esteemed gathering of = researchers=20 and educators assembled here to consider =93keeping it real=94 for = their students=20 so the wealth of knowledge you have to impart can be internalized by = those=20 fortunate enough to take your classes.  

 

I=20 hope to continue to learn of new sources through the generosity of = those=20 sharing on this forum.  = Of=20 particular use to me would be on line sources of archival material = that could=20 be utilized in power point presentations by students and = educators.  If anyone is interested I = would be=20 happy to share the outline of the Forbearer Project I=92ve done with = my APUS=20 students.  It allows = them to trace=20 key historical events in the lives of a great grandparent.  For students whose families=20 participated in the Great Migration the sharing lends to phenomenal=20 illustrations of the evolution of Civil Rights in=20 America.

 

Thanks=20 to everyone for sharing.  = This=20 forum has been a wonderful benefit, not just to my bank of teaching = materials=20 but to my personal quest for knowledge as=20 well.

 

Sincerely,

 

Susan=20 Cary Strickland

Friendly=20 High=20 School

Fort=20 Washington,=20 MD

 

 

This=20 forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at=20 http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History.=20 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_001_0008_01C38B58.07BB3C80-- ------=_NextPart_000_0007_01C38B58.07BB3C80 Content-Type: image/gif; name="image001.gif" Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 Content-ID: <000601c38b79$8ebc13a0$548eaa18@earthlink.net> R0lGODlhbwBvAOb/AP//////zP//mf//Zv//M///AP/M///MzP/Mmf/MZv/MM//MAP+Z//+ZzP+Z mf+ZZv+ZM/+ZAP9m//9mzP9mmf9mZv9mM/9mAP8z//8zzP8zmf8zZv8zM/8zAP8A//8AzP8Amf8A Zv8AM/8AAMz//8z/zMz/mcz/Zsz/M8z/AMzM/8zMzMzMmczMZszMM8zMAMyZ/8yZzMyZmcyZZsyZ M8yZAMxm/8xmzMxmmcxmZsxmM8xmAMwz/8wzzMwzmcwzZswzM8wzAMwA/8wAzMwAmcwAZswAM8wA AJn//5n/zJn/mZn/Zpn/M5n/AJnM/5nMzJnMmZnMZpnMM5nMAJmZ/5mZzJmZmZmZZgAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 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impact on higher education and its role in expanding the American middle class. However, either through lecture or through primary documents as I mentioned earlier, I also provide the context of anxiety that helped produce the GI Bill, namely, the mix of fear and hope of what these millions of soldiers and sailors, many combat hardened, would do in the US once they returned, particularly if jobs were scarce, etc. This preoccupied a surprising number of commentators, leaders, editors, and others, given the record of veterans' participation in reactionary activities after World War One. This, combined with the information on the exclusion of southern black veterans from full participation in the benefits their service had earned, tends to help balance the notion of the GI Bill as simply reflecting America's pure gratitude to the servicemen and women for fighting the "Good War." Like most social reform, it was the product of a much more complex and political debat. One other note about the CRM: does anyone utilize the rich stories of voter registration projects in the postwar 1940s in their teaching on the CRM? Thanks, Jennifer Brooks Tusculum College 11:57 PM 10/3/03 -0700, you wrote: >Jennifer: Not to get off topic, but in light of your research, how do you >present the GI Bill to your students? Just curious. > >Pete Haro, MA. > >---------- >>From: Jennifer Brooks >>To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU >>Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM >>Date: Fri, Oct 3, 2003, 5:10 AM >> > >> Hello, >> >> Anyone interested in locating primary sources that address the impact of >> World War Two Veterans on the CRM, particularly if you want to extend the >> timeline back into the postwar 1940s, might consider the Southern Regional >> Council's Veterans Services Project records. The SRC sent WWII veterans, >> mostly African American ones, into each of the southern states immediately >> after the Second World War to assess how well southern black veterans were >> utilizing their GI Bill benefits. Their reports and letters back to George >> Mitchell provide a searing record of discrimination at all levels of >> government. This story undermines assumptions about the universal positive >> impact of the GI Bill on the soldiers and sailors who served in the Second >> World War. The evidence of discrimination against these men after the war >> is incontrovertible. >> >> I have used these records successfully in the classroom to bridge the New >> Deal Era to the Brown era for students, and to provide a context for why >> the CRM was necessary. The personal accounts of discrimination in these >> records, along with newspaper accounts of violence against black veterans, >> such as Isaac Woodward in South Carolina, paint a clear portrait for even >> the most apathetic of students. >> >> These records are located on microfilm--you can access information on how >> to find them through the Atlanta University History Center in Atlanta, >> Georgia. >> >> Also, a few months ago I did a search on the web and found a site with >> photos and documents of black veteran Isaac Woodward and his case in the >> postwar 1940s [he was blinded by white policemen in South Carolina over a >> dispute on public transportation just after being discharged from the >> military, while still in his uniform]--this is a great case to use with >> students. I don't remember the web address but a search by his name ought >> to turn it up quickly. >> >> Other authors who discuss black veterans and the CRM: >> >> Michael Honey >> John Dittmer, Local People >> James Cobb, Most Southern Place on Earth >> Neil McMillen, Remaking Dixie >> >> Thanks, >> >> Jennifer Brooks >> Associate Professor of Commons and History >> Tusculum College >> P.O. 5057 >> Greeneville, TN 37743 >> jbrooks@tusculum.edu >> >> >> At 06:30 AM 10/2/03 -0700, you wrote: >>> at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm Although, I would use a fist full of >>>salt for any FBI document that you use. Nishani Frazier Do you Yahoo!? >>> The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is >>>sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >>>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. >> >> This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >> http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 08:41:29 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Derek Catsam Subject: CRM Chronology Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/html

I would like to concur with others who have begun an interesting topic -- the chronology of the Civil Rights Movement. The deeper I get into both my scholarship and my teaching, the harder it is for me to buy into any standard chronology, but certainly not the Montgomery to Memphis approach. I understand that it is necessary to draw some sort of lines, especially for students -- every course on civil rights cannot viably cover the African American Freedom Struggle from 1619-2003 and expect to enter any topical depth. But I do often struggle, even in my own writing with how far to go back. For example, in my dissertation (and soon to be book with LSU) on the Freedom Rides, the book carries a title that dates this particular struggle from 1941-1965, but in fact from preface to conclusion, I cover a date span from the 1820s to, quite literally, this week (still revising . . .).

 It becomes quite a tangled knot to unravel, I think especially when trying to find a starting point, because it is not as if there was a point at which someone said "ok, now we're a civil rights movement." And indeed, even Brown, a traditional starting point, was in many ways the culmination of a series of cases that themselves were at one point grassroots forms of resistance. Further, most local communities hold stories of resistance well before 1954. Washington DC had "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" campaigns and other actions in the 1930s, as did dozens of othere communities. Further, the struggle for racial equality did not end with King's death, and indeed it was only after that when we begin to see the movement really expand beyond the black-white schema that I am as guilty as anyone of perpatuating -- if in large part because for so long that was the predominant, though never soul, nexus of struggle.

 These are the questions that fascinate us as scholars, and that we try to bring into the classroom for the purposes of complexity. At the same time, much of this is new to our students, and we have to be wary of trying to bring too many historiographical questions in at once. I still think the Eyes on the Prize series, especially with the addition of Volume II, is useful, but certainly we need to move beyond that narrow time frame. I usually start out with a couple of days to a week's woprth of work on the pre-WWII period, then give another 2-3 weeks just getting up to Brown in terms of theory and narrative. This term, my civil rights class is different -- I also do work in South African history, and have decided to add a significant element of comparison, indeed calling the class "Comparative Civil Rights in the US and South Africa." This adds another level of complexity, but it also adds a richness to the students' understanding of things. Further, it can show parallel developments without forcing ther students into a rigid narrative structure, which may be at least part of our problem with the imposed chronological range. (This from someone who loves narrative and tries as best I can to write with narrative verve).

 I look forward to feedback.




Derek Catsam
Department of History
110 Armstrong Hall
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Mankato, MN 56001
(o) 507-389-5314
(h) 507-625-7807


Instant message during games with MSN Messenger 6.0. Download it now FREE! This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 10:12:30 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Joan Browning Subject: Re: CRM Chronology MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_004B_01C38BF2.5A0A3230" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_004B_01C38BF2.5A0A3230 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Derek, as one of the last Freedom Riders -- on the Albany, Georgia Freedom = Ride Dec. 10, 1961 -- I'm interested in your dissertation/book. Do you inc= lude Albany? Joan Joan C. Browning P. O. Box 436 Ronceverte WV 24970-0436 oma00013@wvnet.edu http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013/ ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Derek Catsam=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 8:41 AM Subject: CRM Chronology I would like to concur with others who have begun an interesting topic --= the chronology of the Civil Rights Movement. The deeper I get into both my= scholarship and my teaching, the harder it is for me to buy into any stand= ard chronology, but certainly not the Montgomery to Memphis approach. I und= erstand that it is necessary to draw some sort of lines, especially for stu= dents -- every course on civil rights cannot viably cover the African Ameri= can Freedom Struggle from 1619-2003 and expect to enter any topical depth. = But I do often struggle, even in my own writing with how far to go back. Fo= r example, in my dissertation (and soon to be book with LSU) on the Freedom= Rides, the book carries a title that dates this particular struggle from 1= 941-1965, but in fact from preface to conclusion, I cover a date span from = the 1820s to, quite literally, this week (still revising . . .).=20 It becomes quite a tangled knot to unravel, I think especially when tryi= ng to find a starting point, because it is not as if there was a point at w= hich someone said "ok, now we're a civil rights movement." And indeed, even= Brown, a traditional starting point, was in many ways the culmination of a= series of cases that themselves were at one point grassroots forms of resi= stance. Further, most local communities hold stories of resistance well bef= ore 1954. Washington DC had "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" campaigns and = other actions in the 1930s, as did dozens of othere communities. Further, t= he struggle for racial equality did not end with King's death, and indeed i= t was only after that when we begin to see the movement really expand beyon= d the black-white schema that I am as guilty as anyone of perpatuating -- i= f in large part because for so long that was the predominant, though never = soul, nexus of struggle.=20 These are the questions that fascinate us as scholars, and that we try t= o bring into the classroom for the purposes of complexity. At the same time= , much of this is new to our students, and we have to be wary of trying to = bring too many historiographical questions in at once. I still think the Ey= es on the Prize series, especially with the addition of Volume II, is usefu= l, but certainly we need to move beyond that narrow time frame. I usually s= tart out with a couple of days to a week's woprth of work on the pre-WWII p= eriod, then give another 2-3 weeks just getting up to Brown in terms of the= ory and narrative. This term, my civil rights class is different -- I also = do work in South African history, and have decided to add a significant ele= ment of comparison, indeed calling the class "Comparative Civil Rights in t= he US and South Africa." This adds another level of complexity, but it also= adds a richness to the students' understanding of things. Further, it can = show par! allel developments without forcing ther students into a rigid nar= rative structure, which may be at least part of our problem with the impose= d chronological range. (This from someone who loves narrative and tries as = best I can to write with narrative verve).=20 I look forward to feedback. Derek Catsam Department of History 110 Armstrong Hall Minnesota State University, Mankato Mankato, MN 56001 (o) 507-389-5314 (h) 507-625-7807 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------= --- Instant message during games with MSN Messenger 6.0. Download it now FREE= ! This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.= =20 --=20 This message has been scanned for viruses and dangerous content by WVNET, and is believed to be clean. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_004B_01C38BF2.5A0A3230 Content-Type: text/html; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Derek, as one of the last Freedom Riders -- on the Albany, Georgia Fre= edom=20 Ride Dec. 10, 1961 -- I'm interested in your dissertation/book.  Do yo= u=20 include Albany?
Joan
Joan C. Browning
P. O. Box 436
Ronceverte WV =20 24970-0436
oma00013@wvnet.edu<= BR>http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013= /
----- Original Message -----
Fro= m:=20 Derek=20 Catsam
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 8:4= 1=20 AM
Subject: CRM Chronology

I would like to concur with others who have begun an interesting topic= --=20 the chronology of the Civil Rights Movement. The deeper I get into both m= y=20 scholarship and my teaching, the harder it is for me to buy into any stan= dard=20 chronology, but certainly not the Montgomery to Memphis approach. I under= stand=20 that it is necessary to draw some sort of lines, especially for students = --=20 every course on civil rights cannot viably cover the African American Fre= edom=20 Struggle from 1619-2003 and expect to enter any topical depth. But I do o= ften=20 struggle, even in my own writing with how far to go back. For example, in= my=20 dissertation (and soon to be book with LSU) on the Freedom Rides, the boo= k=20 carries a title that dates this particular struggle from 1941-1965, but i= n=20 fact from preface to conclusion, I cover a date span from the 1820s to, q= uite=20 literally, this week (still revising . . .).

 It becomes quite a tangled knot to unravel, I think especially w= hen=20 trying to find a starting point, because it is not as if there was a poin= t at=20 which someone said "ok, now we're a civil rights movement." And indeed, e= ven=20 Brown, a traditional starting point, was in many ways the culmination of = a=20 series of cases that themselves were at one point grassroots forms of=20 resistance. Further, most local communities hold stories of resistance we= ll=20 before 1954. Washington DC had "Don't Buy Where You Can't Work" campaigns= and=20 other actions in the 1930s, as did dozens of othere communities. Further,= the=20 struggle for racial equality did not end with King's death, and indeed it= was=20 only after that when we begin to see the movement really expand beyond th= e=20 black-white schema that I am as guilty as anyone of perpatuating -- if in= =20 large part because for so long that was the predominant, though never sou= l,=20 nexus of struggle.

 These are the questions that fascinate us as scholars, and that = we=20 try to bring into the classroom for the purposes of complexity. At the sa= me=20 time, much of this is new to our students, and we have to be wary of tryi= ng to=20 bring too many historiographical questions in at once. I still think the = Eyes=20 on the Prize series, especially with the addition of Volume II, is useful= , but=20 certainly we need to move beyond that narrow time frame. I usually start = out=20 with a couple of days to a week's woprth of work on the pre-WWII period, = then=20 give another 2-3 weeks just getting up to Brown in terms of theory and=20 narrative. This term, my civil rights class is different -- I also do wor= k in=20 South African history, and have decided to add a significant element of= =20 comparison, indeed calling the class "Comparative Civil Rights in the US = and=20 South Africa." This adds another level of complexity, but it also adds a= =20 richness to the students' understanding of things. Further, it can show p= ar!=20 allel developments without forcing ther students into a rigid narrative= =20 structure, which may be at least part of our problem with the imposed=20 chronological range. (This from someone who loves narrative and tries as = best=20 I can to write with narrative verve).

 I look forward to feedback.




Derek Catsam
Department of History
110 Armstrong Hall
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Mankato, MN 56001
(o) 507-389-5314
(h) 507-625-7807

Instant message during = games=20 with MSN Messenger 6.0. Download it now FREE! This forum is sponsored= by=20 History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.e= du=20 for more resources for teaching U.S. History.
-= -=20
This message has been scanned for viruses and dangerous
content by WVNET, and is believed to be c= lean. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_004B_01C38BF2.5A0A3230-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 10:29:04 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Joan Browning Subject: Hello MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0062_01C38BF4.AAA420F0" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0062_01C38BF4.AAA420F0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Good morning, civil rights movement teachers, Just wanted y'all to know that with Dr. Payne's permission I'm lurking on t= he discussion list. I am a Freedom Rider and SNCC volunteer from the 1961-63 period. Other inf= o about my freedom struggle activities is on my now-hopelessly-outdated web= site,=20 http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013/ When I've had time to thoughtfully read the postings so far, I may have que= stions or comments. Meantime, ask me for anything that a geezer might be a= ble to supply! Best wishes, Joan Joan C. Browning P. O. Box 436 Ronceverte WV 24970-0436 oma00013@wvnet.edu http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013/ --=20 This message has been scanned for viruses and dangerous content by WVNET, and is believed to be clean. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0062_01C38BF4.AAA420F0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Good morning, civil rights movement teachers,
 
Just wanted y'all to know that with Dr. Payne's permission I'm lurking= on=20 the discussion list.
 
I am a Freedom Rider and SNCC volunteer from the 1961-63 period. = =20 Other info about my freedom struggle activities is on my now-hopelessly-out= dated=20 web site,
http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013= /
 
When I've had time to thoughtfully read the postings so far, I may hav= e=20 questions or comments.  Meantime, ask me for anything that a geezer mi= ght=20 be able to supply!
Best wishes,
Joan
Joan C. Browning
P. O. Box 436
Ronceverte WV =20 24970-0436
oma00013@wvnet.edu<= BR>http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013= /
 

--=20
This message has been scanned for viruses and dangerous
content by WVNET, and is believed to be c= lean. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0062_01C38BF4.AAA420F0-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 08:02:04 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kevin Schultz Subject: Was Brown an important jump start? In-Reply-To: Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed Kay Rout has suggested that the Brown decision of 1954 should serve a turning point in the Civil Rights Movement (eg "one huge thing happened that jump-started the CRM in the 50's: The Brown v. Board of Ed. decision.") While clearly useful for teaching, many scholars have suggested that Brown didn't really provoke much activism at the time, or throughout the late 1950s either. Principally Michael Klarman, but other scholars too (Gerald Rosenberg), have pointed out that, following the decision, activism actually declined, the number of legislators willing to sponsor civil rights legislation went down, and the only thing notable about the first "anniversary" of the decision was the small number of people who actually seemed to care to observe it (compare this to the amazing number of celebration that are taking place next year!). In fact, this "backlash thesis" about Brown further argues that Brown was instrumental in the CRM mainly because it provoked the rise of massive resistance in the South and effectively ended all efforts at Southern racial moderation, which were clearly on the increase following the Second World War. Recent arguments about Brown have downplayed this "backlash" argument, but I still find it somewhat persuasive and nobody to my knowledge has tackled it head-on. Does anybody else give this argument credence? If so, how does that affect the way we teach (or think about) Brown? Does it make Brown an important symbol, but also a sign of the necessity of bottom-up social activism? Love to hear you feedback, Kevin Schultz, abd UC Berkeley This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 11:24:50 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Nancy Zens Subject: MLK: How do you address the paradox? First, to introduce myself, I have taught the U.S. history sequence for the last 14 years at a Community College. I have been delighted with the direction of the discussion on CRM. This topic remains a key component of my 20th century component, and continues to challenge me to come up with a better way of involving students in understanding the specific events and rippling impacts. Every year I face the celebration of MLK day trying to justify to my colleagues and students why I find it difficult to lionize MLK, and stress instead the variety of responses north and south to demands for civil rights NOW. Among those who claim that MLK is the black JFK, my response has been "exactly, flaws and all". So, as the call goes out to further lionize MLK with a national statue, how are you addressing the contradictions inherent in addressing him? I laud his bravery in placing himself in a position as a lightning rod for white hatred, a major symbolic target, and his ability to reach a fairly broad spectrum of black and white conservative America. Some of his speeches, whether read, heard, or viewed through old media clips, contain great material for class discussion. Some of the violent news clips speak more about the times than volumes of historical analysis. I try to get students to deal with realistic history, so being true to course philsophy, how can I teach the leadership without addressing the flaws? It is not just that the hero has personal flaws, a universal dilemma, it is the nature of the flaws that create problems for me in presenting him as representative of CRM. Drug use, extra-marital affairs, plagiarism in college papers that gained him his degree make him a difficult role model for me to present to students. Granted that these flaws, or questions of character, might have little impact on 21st century voters or their decisions about MLK's greatness, yet many of his supporters were black and white Christians who viewed him as an ideal Christian, family man, and spokes-person for America's best values. Would they have continued to support him if they understood the man rather than the image? Today, would we lionize a man with these faults, or look to the consequences of people identifying with his stated aims or dreams? Would we now be looking more clearly at the contributions of other civil rights leaders? Racist as well as FBI attempts to smear him and his immediate lietenants are now much better understood. Still, he provided a lot of negative evidence for those who today look at character being an important component of leadership. As the man most readily identified with the CRM by both high school students, older returning students, and the public as a whole, how are you addressing his contributions? Nancy Zens, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. History Central Oregon Community College 2600 NW College Way Bend, OR 97701 nzens@cocc.edu This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 10:36:28 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Curtis Austin Subject: Re: Was Brown an important jump start? MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Another teaching moment we ought not miss is a discussion of the violence/nonviolence paradigm. Did reliance on violence, i.e. self-defense suddenly pop up after Stokeley (Kwame) issued his call for Black Power, or as Tim Tyson suggests, had it been there all along. Speaking of primary sources on the topic, I live in Mississippi and have done numerous interviews with movement activist and almost to the person they describe a physical "armed camp" when it came to organizing in the Magnolia state. Why has this side of the story, with amazingly few exceptions, been left out of the popular and scholarly histories of the movement. I think the students we are responsible for educating need to know as much of the story as we can give them and to downplay the very thing that kept activists breathing seems to be defeating the purpose of teaching movement history. Just wondering. CA ----- Original Message ----- From: "Kevin Schultz" To: Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 10:02 AM Subject: Was Brown an important jump start? > Kay Rout has suggested that the Brown decision of 1954 should serve a > turning point in the Civil Rights Movement (eg "one huge thing happened > that jump-started the CRM in the 50's: The Brown v. Board of Ed. > decision.") While clearly useful for teaching, many scholars have > suggested that Brown didn't really provoke much activism at the time, or > throughout the late 1950s either. Principally Michael Klarman, but other > scholars too (Gerald Rosenberg), have pointed out that, following the > decision, activism actually declined, the number of legislators willing to > sponsor civil rights legislation went down, and the only thing notable > about the first "anniversary" of the decision was the small number of > people who actually seemed to care to observe it (compare this to the > amazing number of celebration that are taking place next year!). In fact, > this "backlash thesis" about Brown further argues that Brown was > instrumental in the CRM mainly because it provoked the rise of massive > resistance in the South and effectively ended all efforts at Southern > racial moderation, which were clearly on the increase following the Second > World War. Recent arguments about Brown have downplayed this "backlash" > argument, but I still find it somewhat persuasive and nobody to my > knowledge has tackled it head-on. > > Does anybody else give this argument credence? If so, how does that affect > the way we teach (or think about) Brown? Does it make Brown an important > symbol, but also a sign of the necessity of bottom-up social activism? > > Love to hear you feedback, > Kevin Schultz, abd > UC Berkeley > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 08:53:47 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Heather Lewis Subject: Re: about portrayals of CRM decline Comments: To: Jack Dougherty In-Reply-To: <4F6A75B8-F653-11D7-8671-0003930F250E@trincoll.edu> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="0-537206386-1065455627=:40227" --0-537206386-1065455627=:40227 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Hi folks: Thanks for the helpful feedback to my question regarding declension analyses of the CRM. Of course your feedback has sparked new questions. But let me quickly answer a question that was directed to me. (Please understand I am not teaching the CRM right now but am working on a dissertation. So my responses to this conversation are from the perspective of a student; not a teacher.) I would argue that in education history the interpretations of the CRM/Black Power movements in the North are--with some exceptions--mostly about the decline of the movement due to black militancy and white backlash. As Jack Dougherty suggested in his e-mail, these interpretations argue that the black power movement brought an "end of an (alleged) post-WWII liberal-labor-black coalition. " So, for example, Jeffrey Mirel's, The Rise and Fall of an Urban School System, Detroit, 1907-81 (1993) attributes the final demise of the fragile, civic consensus that undergirded the school system in the post-war period to the rise of Black militancy in the late 60s. Similarly, Diane Ravitch in The Great School Wars: New York City, 1805-1973 (re-issued 2003) and Jerald Podair, The Strike That Changed New York: Blacks, White and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville Crisis (2002) argue that the community control movement in New York City in the late 60s--led by African-American and Latino education activists--provoked a backlash by teacher union leaders because of its militancy and anti-Semitism. The authors argue that the community control movement was the primary obliterator of the liberal-labor-black coalition in New York City. In contrast, Wendell Pritchett, in Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the Changing Face of the Ghetto (2002), provides a more layered and complex treatment of community control by situating the movement in a broader historical context of community organizing and development. Pritchett shows how the composition and demands of community activists in housing, health, and education changed as demography and time shaped evolving formations of grassroots, working-class organizations and movements to improve urban living conditions. He also anlayzes the external, political conditions that either hindered or contributed to effective organizing and community development It is neither a backlash nor a declension story, but one that captures the "waves" of protest and struggle in Ocean Hill-Brownsville across time. Heather Lewis Jack Dougherty wrote: Heather Lewis raises some interesting questions, and I'd like to focus on the second one about "declension theories" of the civil rights movement (and this may apply to the entire US, not just the North). She writes: >> 2. If we are to address the reductive tropes of the northern >> movement by telling a different story, don't we also need to address >> the reasons these ahistorical tropes have dominated popular and >> scholarly accounts of the movement in the North? What role has memory >> played in reproducing distorted accounts of the black power movement? >> Why do declension theories usually conclude that black power >> represented the end of the "liberal coalition" in the North? In >> many instances, opponents of Northern movements defended their civil >> rights "records" by holding up their support for the Southern civil >> rights movement. Heather, would you please identify some examples of these declension theories in popular or scholarly accounts, to help enrich the discussion for all? I've been fascinated by how some civil rights history texts (especially those written for broader audiences) portray the decline of the movement in very abrupt terms. For example, Harvard Sitkoff's very readable book, The Struggle for Black Equality, attempts to pinpoint the exact week of this complex national transformation, by juxtaposing LBJ's signing of the Voting Rights Act versus the Watts riot in early August, 1965. I write about this "abandonment narrative," both its prevalence and its severe limitations, in my forthcoming book, More Than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee (UNC Press, 2004). Several other authors, such as William Van Deburg, New Day in Babylon, and Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within A Nation, have written related criticisms about popularized accounts of the rise of the Black power movement. Is this what you mean by "declension theories"? Or do you have other examples in mind that refer more directly to the Black power movement as the end of an (alleged) post-WWII liberal-labor-black coalition? Jack Dougherty Trinity College, Hartford CT jack.dougherty@trincoll.edu http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/educ/dougherty.htm --------------------------------- Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-537206386-1065455627=:40227 Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii
Hi folks:
 
Thanks for the helpful feedback to my question regarding declension analyses of the CRM.  Of course your  feedback has sparked new questions.  But let me quickly answer a question that was directed to me. (Please  understand I am not teaching the CRM right now but am working on a dissertation. So my responses to this conversation are from the perspective of a student; not a teacher.)

I would argue that in education history the interpretations of the CRM/Black Power movements in the North are--with some exceptions--mostly about the decline of the movement due to black militancy and white backlash. As Jack Dougherty suggested in his e-mail, these interpretations argue that the black power movement brought an "end of an (alleged) post-WWII liberal-labor-black coalition. "   So, for example, Jeffrey Mirel's, The Rise and Fall of an Urban School System, Detroit, 1907-81 (1993) attributes the final demise of the fragile, civic  consensus that undergirded the school system in the post-war period to the rise of Black militancy in the late 60s.  Similarly, Diane Ravitch in The Great School Wars: New York City, 1805-1973 (re-issued 2003) and Jerald Podair, The Strike That Changed New York: Blacks, White and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville Crisis (2002)  argue that the community control movement in New York City in the late 60s--led by African-American and Latino education activists--provoked a backlash by teacher union leaders because of its militancy and anti-Semitism. The authors argue that the community control movement was the primary obliterator of  the liberal-labor-black coalition in New York City. 
 
 In contrast, Wendell Pritchett, in Brownsville, Brooklyn: Blacks, Jews, and the Changing Face of the Ghetto (2002), provides a more layered and complex treatment of community control by situating the movement in a broader historical context of community organizing and development.  Pritchett shows how the composition and demands of community activists in housing, health, and education changed as demography and time shaped evolving formations of grassroots, working-class organizations and movements  to improve urban living conditions. He also anlayzes the external, political conditions that either  hindered or contributed to effective organizing and community development  It is neither a backlash nor a declension story, but one that captures the "waves" of protest and struggle in Ocean Hill-Brownsville across time.
 
 
Heather Lewis


Jack Dougherty <jack.dougherty@trincoll.edu> wrote:
Heather Lewis raises some interesting questions, and I'd like to focus
on the second one about "declension theories" of the civil rights
movement (and this may apply to the entire US, not just the North). She
writes:

>> 2. If we are to address the reductive tropes of the northern
>> movement by telling a different story, don't we also need to address
>> the reasons these ahistorical tropes have dominated popular and
>> scholarly accounts of the movement in the North? What role has memory
>> played in reproducing distorted accounts of the black power movement?
>> Why do declension theories usually conclude that black power
>> represented the end of the "liberal coalition" in the North? In
>> many instances, opponents of Northern movements defended their civil
>> rights "records" by holding up their support for the Southern civil
>> rights movement.

Heather, would you please identify some examples of these declension
theories in popular or scholarly accounts, to help enrich the
discussion for all?

I've been fascinated by how some civil rights history texts (especially
those written for broader audiences) portray the decline of the
movement in very abrupt terms. For example, Harvard Sitkoff's very
readable book, The Struggle for Black Equality, attempts to pinpoint
the exact week of this complex national transformation, by juxtaposing
LBJ's signing of the Voting Rights Act versus the Watts riot in early
August, 1965. I write about this "abandonment narrative," both its
prevalence and its severe limitations, in my forthcoming book, More
Than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee
(UNC Press, 2004). Several other authors, such as William Van Deburg,
New Day in Babylon, and Komozi Woodard, A Nation Within A Nation, have
written related criticisms about popularized accounts of the rise of
the Black power movement.

Is this what you mean by "declension theories"? Or do you have other
examples in mind that refer more directly to the Black power movement
as the end of an (alleged) post-WWII liberal-labor-black coalition?

Jack Dougherty
Trinity College, Hartford CT
jack.dougherty@trincoll.edu
http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/educ/dougherty.htm


Do you Yahoo!?
The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-537206386-1065455627=:40227-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 09:44:44 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: William M King Subject: Re: Teaching civil rights In-Reply-To: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Folks, every now and again, I teach a senior level course on the CRM. I believe there are two things I do differently in my course than what I have been reading on this list thus far. First, I define the black strugggle for self-determination as a species of domestic war ("created and sustained by white people [or their surrogates], whose origins may be found in the involuntary transportation of Africans to the New World...[war being defined as 'a state of hostility, conflict, or antagonism,' or as 'a struggle between opposing forces' to realize a particular end") in this case as--MLK put it--assisting America to be true to what it put on paper. However, I remind my students, it is important to keep in mind that American society had been up and running for 169 years when the concept of American Nation was committed thereto; meaning that a social stratification system with all the attendant rights and privileges, assymetrical distribution of power, opportunites distributed along race class and gender lines, and the rest of the stuff that makes a society go were in place defining social reality before democracy in America was articulated. And, second, I take as one beginning point of that struggle the submission of the first slave petitions to colonial legislatures in the seventeenth century, although , at times, I have argued in the early weeks of the course that perhaps a better starting point would be captives resistance before and during the middle passage or the first documented slave revolt that took place in what would become the Carolinas in 1526. There are some other factors included in what I have noted above, and I shall attempt to convey them in the days ahead. William M King Professor of Afroamerican Studies, and Associate Chair The Department of Ethnic Studies The University of Colorado at Boulder This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 11:02:53 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Curtis Austin Subject: Re: How do you address the paradox? MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit As for the questions of character concerning teaching the image of Martin Luther King, Jr., as a history professor at the University of Southern Mississippi, I just lay it out there for my students to decide how they "feel" and then get them to discuss these issues. In the meantime, I provide them with evidence from the lives of presidents, business magnates, and other so-called "heroes" and ask them to compare--what they always find is that humans have no way to stop being human and so they have these flaws. I'm sure if someone took the same 33 million dollars that Ken Starr used to investigate Clinton and used it to investigate the people on this list, that they would find that there are lot of people teaching in the nation's public school system that have character flaws. My question is which of you are planning to quit the profession for something you did in the past (or are doing) and feel ashamed of it? I guess the point I'm trying to make is that these issues most certainly should not be swept under the rug but if we are to get to the essence of the civil rights movement, what difference, end the end, does it make that Martin Luther King (and Fannie Lou Hamer) told a few racist jokes?---to me, she's still Fannie Lou and he's still the man who was assassinated (with the foreknowledge of federal officials) for pointing out, not civil rights inequities, but the economic inequities in American life. CA This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 15:20:24 -0400 Reply-To: Frances.Early@msvu.ca Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Frances Early Organization: Mount Saint Vincent University Subject: Re: MLK: How do you address the paradox? In-Reply-To: Hello, I teach a full year course on Afro North American history and a course on the Sixties at an undergraduate university in Halifax, Nova Scotia. I am happy to be on this list and will learn much from discussions posted at this listserve, I am sure. Just today, I showed a video clip of MLK's "I Have a Dream" speech in my Sixties course. One of my students commented that she had heard a CBC Radio program on the CRM and MLK this past summer (I am looking this up). She said that one of the scholars interviewed declared that MLK had "lifted" part of his speech (the part beginning, "I have a dream...") from a speech given by someone else (another minister?) in the l950s. Can anyone document this allegation? I would not be surprised if King did "borrow" from another person's ideas (again), but did he? If so, then the problem of paradox that Nancy Zens refers to becomes even more tangled with regard to MLK. Thanks ahead of time, Frances Early Date sent: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 11:24:50 -0400 Send reply to: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Nancy Zens Subject: MLK: How do you address the paradox? To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU First, to introduce myself, I have taught the U.S. history sequence for the last 14 years at a Community College. I have been delighted with the direction of the discussion on CRM. This topic remains a key component of my 20th century component, and continues to challenge me to come up with a better way of involving students in understanding the specific events and rippling impacts. Every year I face the celebration of MLK day trying to justify to my colleagues and students why I find it difficult to lionize MLK, and stress instead the variety of responses north and south to demands for civil rights NOW. Among those who claim that MLK is the black JFK, my response has been "exactly, flaws and all". So, as the call goes out to further lionize MLK with a national statue, how are you addressing the contradictions inherent in addressing him? I laud his bravery in placing himself in a position as a lightning rod for white hatred, a major symbolic target, and his ability to reach a fairly broad spectrum of black and white conservative America. Some of his speeches, whether read, heard, or viewed through old media clips, contain great material for class discussion. Some of the violent news clips speak more about the times than volumes of historical analysis. I try to get students to deal with realistic history, so being true to course philsophy, how can I teach the leadership without addressing the flaws? It is not just that the hero has personal flaws, a universal dilemma, it is the nature of the flaws that create problems for me in presenting him as representative of CRM. Drug use, extra-marital affairs, plagiarism in college papers that gained him his degree make him a difficult role model for me to present to students. Granted that these flaws, or questions of character, might have little impact on 21st century voters or their decisions about MLK's greatness, yet many of his supporters were black and white Christians who viewed him as an ideal Christian, family man, and spokes-person for America's best values. Would they have continued to support him if they understood the man rather than the image? Today, would we lionize a man with these faults, or look to the consequences of people identifying with his stated aims or dreams? Would we now be looking more clearly at the contributions of other civil rights leaders? Racist as well as FBI attempts to smear him and his immediate lietenants are now much better understood. Still, he provided a lot of negative evidence for those who today look at character being an important component of leadership. As the man most readily identified with the CRM by both high school students, older returning students, and the public as a whole, how are you addressing his contributions? Nancy Zens, Ph.D., Assoc. Prof. History Central Oregon Community College 2600 NW College Way Bend, OR 97701 nzens@cocc.edu This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ****************************** Frances Early, Ph.D. Professor, Department of History Mount Saint Vincent University Halifax, Nova Scotia B3M 2J6 CANADA work phone (902) 457-6225 fax (902) 457-6455 ****************************** This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 15:56:59 -0400 Reply-To: Frances.Early@msvu.ca Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Frances Early Organization: Mount Saint Vincent University Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM In-Reply-To: Apropos of Kate's comment, CRM history often neglects the role of peace organizations over the long course of struggle. For instance, CORE, founded in l942 ("not" in the l950s as stated in an earlier posting), was largely the organizational child of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, a pacifist group founded in Great Britian during W.W. II with a chapter established in the U.S. in l915. CORE was always independent of FOR but according to Lawrence Wittner in his book REBELS AGAINST WAR it remained under FOR's protective wing for many years. The initial committee of black and white theological students who provided the initial membership for CORE (Chicago) brought their interest in Gandhi's satyagraha campaigns to to this new pacifist civil rights group helping thereby to shape movement thought and work in profound ways and to draw in a widening circle of liberal supporters. In terms of the problem of the CRM and chronology, I go back to the immediate post-Civil WAr era, but especially stress the work of Ida B. Wells as the foundation for future struggle. I have also myself researched and written about the connection between W.W. I pacifism and civil rights work; the early NAACP had significant ties with the pacifist and civil liberties movements of W.W. I--see Frances Early, A WORLD WITHOUT WAR (1997) and "Whiteness and Political Purpose in THE NOOSE, an antilynching play by Tracy Mygatt," WOMEN'S HISTORY REVIEW 11 (2002): 27- 47. Frances Early Date sent: Fri, 3 Oct 2003 11:20:11 -0400 Send reply to: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kate Kerman Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Dear folks, Another element to look into in terms of WWII and the Civil Rights Movement would be those men and their wives who did not go to war - the conscientious objectors who were in work camps or prison during the war, many of whom were active in the civil rights movement later on. Kate Kerman Peer Mediation Coordinator Keene Public High School Keene, NH This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ****************************** Frances Early, Ph.D. Professor, Department of History Mount Saint Vincent University Halifax, Nova Scotia B3M 2J6 CANADA work phone (902) 457-6225 fax (902) 457-6455 ****************************** This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 15:13:58 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charles Payne Subject: declension theory, oral history, nonviolence In-Reply-To: Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Hi all,

The very useful suggestions that we think of the movement as national rather than regional also raise some questions about how we label the movement   Is it appropriate to label all   Black activism =93civil rights=94 activism?   If that term is taken literally, it most properly applies to the South, turning our attention away from the rest of the country. .  In fact, I think =91civil rights=94 is much too narrow to encompass a sense of historic black aspiration.   For most Black people, economic justice, for example,  was always a part of how they understood the struggle (Greta de Jong does a nice job of framing this in her book A Different Day : African American struggles for justice in rural Louisiana, 1900-1970 /( University of North Carolina Press, c2002).   When most people think of civil rights, I don=92t think they are thinking of anything economic. (Civil rights history courses have a certain popularity on college campuses right now but most of the students I encounter have no interest in the labor movement. )    Nor are they thinking of the right to self-determination, which, again , I think of as ever-present . The =91civil rights=94 terminology narrows the conception of the movement in a way which feeds into the triumphalism that shapes much of the national understanding of race =96 i.e., Black people got their civil rights in the 1960s so what are they yakking about now?

I=92m not entirely sure what =93new civil rights=94 movement means but I distrust the terminology.  I think I would prefer to think of most of these issues as another phase of struggle. ( and that reminds me  =96 When Bob Moses refers to the right to learn alegebra and the civil rights issue of our time, he confuses all hell out of people, precisely I think because they have too narrow a framework for =93civil rights.=94  From his position, as I understand it, the movement is about removing the barriers that prevent some people from having full participation in society, whatever form that take in a particular time and place.

There are, as someone said on the list, many advantages to starting discussion of the movement with Reconstruction and one of them is that it militates against a narrow vision of what the struggle is about.   It also addresses another issue.   A great many black students think there was no struggle before the sixties which gets translated into the idea  that earlier generations were
cowards.   Starting with Reconstruction/Civil War counters that.
Re declension theory, we should encourage students to question the premise.   Black Power is usually presented as splintering a pre-existing consensus and it is simply assumed that the consensus was there in fact.   The record is complicated.   If you have students track Gallup polls from the sixties, for example, one of the things they learn is that activities like the March on Washington, which has come to be a symbol of a moment of national consensus, were often quite controversial at the time they happened.   (I=92ll post some examples later this week.)   The most I=92ve ever been able to see is that between roughly 1963-65 there was a national consensus that the South could no longer defend its racial system with open , visible violence and open defiance of the federal government.


A useful book for countering =93simplistic tropes of violence/rebellion/nationalist,=94 is   Herbert Haines, Black radicals and the civil rights mainstream, 1954-1970 . (University of Tennessee Press, c1988 ).  Rather than treating radicals as if they destroyed the movement, Haines make the point that some of you made, that the various wings of the movement oftene worked in tandem.  He makes a good case that the centrists got the leverage they did largely because of the presence of more radical alternatives.   Affirmative action seemed like a very reasonable concession when cities were burning.


An  approach to the idea of movement decline that I find more interesting has to do with the possibility that the movement=92s left wing suffered some kind of decline in terms of its capacity to sustain an internally cooperative social climate.   Granted there is a tendency to romanticize the early years of movements and granted, =93social climate=94 is awfully hard to pin down, but I think we do see more distrust and suspicion, more attacking behavior and less democratic behavior.  As judicious and supportive an observer as Ella Baker said the young people reached a point where they were =93eating each other up.=94  I have a sense that SDS goes through a similar transition.    Cointelpro and the like certainly accounts for some of it but I doubt it accounts for all of it.    We need a lot more rich descriptive work but there is some reason to think that radicalism had trouble recreating the social conditions for its own perpetuation.

=93Freedom Song=94 is my favorite among recent movement movies partly becaus= e I think it is trying to raise some questions about whether movement supporter/non-supporter is yet another of those binaries that prevent understanding.    See the last scene in particular.  =93Freedom on My Mind=94 is=92not about Fannie Lou Hamer but about the Mississippi Summer Project.   There is some particularly powerful narration (Ida Holland), it captures some of the complexity of interracial interaction inside the movement and captures some of the import of the southern movement for other social movements of the decade.   I think films, oral history and the music of the movemfent do convey some feel for what it was like, especially if they can be used in conjunctions with visits from movement participants.      There is a speakers list on the civil rights veterans website at Fhttp://www.crmvet.org/    But it can be even better to find people in your own area. 


I am glad people are working on the music of the movement.   I think everybody agrees that the music was a source of strength and unity but I=92m not sure that it reflected the nonviolent mindset of the protestors, partly because I agree with those who are sure that the term describes the collective mindset very well, certainly not after 1961.  I=92m thinking, too, about what several people have said about the way the more radical movement is separated from the more centrist parts of the movement and the way many discussions of nonviolence play into that.


There is some controversty about =93Coming of Agein Mississippi=94 . = A number of CORE veterans who worked with Anne Moody don=92t find her portrayal very accurate and have tried to challenge her publically on some issues.    As to other oral histories, Howell Raines My Soul is Rested is among the books that does not deal well with radicalsim but many of the interviews are very useful.     See also the book Minds stayed on Freedom
Title:     Minds stayed on freedom : the civil rights struggle in the rural South : an oral history / youth of the Rural Organizing and Cultural Center ; with an introduction by Jay MacLeod.
Author: Rural Organizing and Cultural Center (Holmes County,=20 Miss.)
Published: Boulder : Westview Press, 1991.

This describes an oral history project that many teachers would find possible to duplicate.

In the Raines book, there is an interview with James Farmer about the founding of CORE, which happened at the University of Chicago in the 1940s.   I believe the first Freedom Ride was in 1947.    Its roots were more closely related to Christian pacifism than to
WWII veterans, if memory serves.      That reminds me that the Meier/Rudwick book on CORE is would be valuable to many of the people interested in the movement in the North.

CORE : a study in the civil rights movement, 1942-1968 / [by] August Meier and Elliott Rudwick.
New York : Oxford University Press, 1973.


CP



Departments of African American Studies and History
226 Carr Bldg., Box 90719
Duke University
Durham, NC 27708
919-684-5764 -phone
919-681-7670 - fax This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 15:38:22 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Susan C. Maynor" Subject: Re: Hello MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0046_01C38C1F.DFC350A0" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0046_01C38C1F.DFC350A0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable How did you get involved? Were you ever scared? Thanks for allowing us = to ask questions. Sue Maynor Purnell Swett HS Pembroke, NC ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Joan Browning=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 10:29 AM Subject: Hello Good morning, civil rights movement teachers, Just wanted y'all to know that with Dr. Payne's permission I'm lurking = on the discussion list. I am a Freedom Rider and SNCC volunteer from the 1961-63 period. = Other info about my freedom struggle activities is on my = now-hopelessly-outdated web site,=20 http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013/ When I've had time to thoughtfully read the postings so far, I may = have questions or comments. Meantime, ask me for anything that a geezer = might be able to supply! Best wishes, Joan Joan C. Browning P. O. Box 436 Ronceverte WV 24970-0436 oma00013@wvnet.edu http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013/ --=20 This message has been scanned for viruses and dangerous=20 content by WVNET, and is believed to be clean. This forum is sponsored = by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0046_01C38C1F.DFC350A0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
How did you get involved?  Were = you ever=20 scared?  Thanks for allowing us to ask questions.

Sue Maynor
Purnell Swett HS
Pembroke, NC
----- Original Message -----
From:=20 Joan=20 Browning
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 = 10:29=20 AM
Subject: Hello

Good morning, civil rights movement teachers,
 
Just wanted y'all to know that with Dr. Payne's permission I'm = lurking on=20 the discussion list.
 
I am a Freedom Rider and SNCC volunteer from the 1961-63 = period. =20 Other info about my freedom struggle activities is on my=20 now-hopelessly-outdated web site,
http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma000= 13/
 
When I've had time to thoughtfully read the postings so far, I = may have=20 questions or comments.  Meantime, ask me for anything that a = geezer might=20 be able to supply!
Best wishes,
Joan
Joan C. Browning
P. O. Box 436
Ronceverte WV =20 24970-0436
oma00013@wvnet.edu
http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma000= 13/
 

--
This message has been scanned for viruses = and=20 dangerous
content by WVNET, and=20 is believed to be clean. This forum is sponsored by History = Matters--please=20 visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources = for=20 teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0046_01C38C1F.DFC350A0-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 15:41:11 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Susan C. Maynor" Subject: Great Project MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_005A_01C38C20.44989BC0" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_005A_01C38C20.44989BC0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Susan, I would like a copy of the project. I teach in a community that is = somewhat "closed". I think this would be a great project for students. S. Maynor S-Maynor@BellSouth.net This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_005A_01C38C20.44989BC0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Susan,
 
I would like a copy of the = project.  I teach=20 in a community that is somewhat "closed".  I think this would be a = great=20 project for students.
 
S. Maynor
 
S-Maynor@BellSouth.net
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_005A_01C38C20.44989BC0-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 15:55:02 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kay Rout Subject: Abandoning racial violence? Mime-version: 1.0 Content-type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit Charles Payne mentioned: The most I've ever been able to see is that between roughly 1963-65 there was a national consensus that the South could no longer defend its racial system with open, visible violence and open defiance of the federal government. I would suggest that the actual change in the South, though, began a little earlier. They resorted to violence right up to 1964, but the murder of the 3 civil rights workers, Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman and the murder of Emmett Till had one thing in common: the killers hid the bodies. The thing they did not have in common was that the killers of Till openly took him from his uncle's house but the killers in 1964 kidnapped the 3 guys in secret. Why is hiding the bodies noteworthy? If you look at the many photographs of lynchings, you'll see whole mobs posing with the (usually) dead body of the victim, unafraid of 1) the law 2) social disapproval (they even sent out postcards with the photos on them!) or 3) retaliation from blacks. In 1955, they didn't dare be open or visible to that extent. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 15:57:20 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Joan Browning Subject: Re: Hello MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0021_01C38C22.86320E70" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0021_01C38C22.86320E70 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Sue, the short answer is that while attending a white girl's college, I cau= sed a "hell of a disturbance" by attending an A.M.E. church, got my scholar= ships revoked, and in searching for the answer to the riddle of what was wr= ong in attending church, found SNCC and Julian Bond and Connie Curry and Ms= . Ella Baker ...=20 I was scared stiff most of the time. Made it easier for me to be "nonviole= nt" as I was too scared to think of anything else to do! Joan Joan C. Browning P. O. Box 436 Ronceverte WV 24970-0436 oma00013@wvnet.edu http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013/ ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Susan C. Maynor=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 3:38 PM Subject: Re: Hello How did you get involved? Were you ever scared? Thanks for allowing us = to ask questions. Sue Maynor Purnell Swett HS Pembroke, NC ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Joan Browning=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 10:29 AM Subject: Hello Good morning, civil rights movement teachers, Just wanted y'all to know that with Dr. Payne's permission I'm lurking = on the discussion list. I am a Freedom Rider and SNCC volunteer from the 1961-63 period. Other= info about my freedom struggle activities is on my now-hopelessly-outdated= web site,=20 http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013/ When I've had time to thoughtfully read the postings so far, I may have= questions or comments. Meantime, ask me for anything that a geezer might = be able to supply! Best wishes, Joan Joan C. Browning P. O. Box 436 Ronceverte WV 24970-0436 oma00013@wvnet.edu http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013/ --=20 This message has been scanned for viruses and dangerous=20 content by WVNET, and is believed to be clean. This forum is sponsored = by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.= edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.=20 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.= =20 --=20 This message has been scanned for viruses and dangerous content by WVNET, and is believed to be clean. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0021_01C38C22.86320E70 Content-Type: text/html; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Sue, the short answer is that while attending a white girl's college, = I=20 caused a "hell of a disturbance" by attending an A.M.E. church, got my=20 scholarships revoked, and in searching for the answer to the riddle of what= was=20 wrong in attending church, found SNCC and Julian Bond and Connie Curry and = Ms.=20 Ella Baker ...
 
I was scared stiff most of the time.  Made it easier for me to be= =20 "nonviolent" as I was too scared to think of anything else to do!
Joan
Joan C. Browning
P. O. Box 436
Ronceverte WV =20 24970-0436
oma00013@wvnet.edu<= BR>http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma00013= /
 
----- Original Message -----
Fro= m:=20 = Susan C.=20 Maynor
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 3:3= 8=20 PM
Subject: Re: Hello

How did you get involved?  Were you= ever=20 scared?  Thanks for allowing us to ask questions.

Sue Maynor
Purnell Swett HS
Pembroke, NC
----- Original Message -----
F= rom:=20 Joan=20 Browning
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LIS= TSERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 1= 0:29=20 AM
Subject: Hello

Good morning, civil rights movement teachers,
 
Just wanted y'all to know that with Dr. Payne's permission I'm lur= king=20 on the discussion list.
 
I am a Freedom Rider and SNCC volunteer from the 1961-63 period.&n= bsp;=20 Other info about my freedom struggle activities is on my=20 now-hopelessly-outdated web site,
http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma0= 0013/
 
When I've had time to thoughtfully read the postings so far, I may= have=20 questions or comments.  Meantime, ask me for anything that a geeze= r=20 might be able to supply!
Best wishes,
Joan
Joan C. Browning
P. O. Box 436
Ronceverte WV = =20 24970-0436
oma00013@wvnet.edu
http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~oma0= 0013/
 

--
This message has been scanned for viruses a= nd=20 dangerous
content by WVNET= ,=20 and is believed to be clean. This forum is sponsored by History=20 Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for= more=20 resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsor= ed by=20 History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.e= du=20 for more resources for teaching U.S. History.
-= -=20
This message has been scanned for viruses and dangerous
content by WVNET, and is believed to be c= lean. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0021_01C38C22.86320E70-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 16:33:58 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Susan Strickland Subject: Re: Great Project In-Reply-To: <005d01c38c41$cbe5be20$6101a8c0@launchmodem.com> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_000B_01C38C27.A52DC800" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_000B_01C38C27.A52DC800 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_001_000C_01C38C27.A53011F0" ------=_NextPart_001_000C_01C38C27.A53011F0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Ms. Maynor, This project is adapted from a project I was introduced to at an APUS history how-to seminar. I also have a timeline project I adapted on the Civil Rights Movement per se if you are interested. I got the idea from a book by a high school teacher here in Fairfax Co, Mr. Perraco (sp). The project involves the construction of a tree. I modified it to give them a theme, actual terms to research, and a bibliography on the post Reconstruction period to supplement the one provided in Mr. P's text. It's a three dimensional concept like diagramming a sentence. It's interesting to see where students put their "branches" of the movement. All complained about the amount of time spent researching it - so it must be good. I would recommend culture grams, bio poems, and concept webs as alternate sources of presentation that require considerable amount of research by students in primary and secondary sources, but are more "user friendly" when it comes to presentation. Simpler formats than the traditional research paper can encourage students to take on more projects and open up your research areas to a broader range of topics. If students invest in a project more than just paper gets produced. Smile. Thank you for your interest. I'm happy to have something to contribute as I've already learned so much from reading the ideas shared on this forum. Peace, Susan C. Strickland -----Original Message----- From: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement [mailto:CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU] On Behalf Of Susan C. Maynor Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 3:41 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Great Project Susan, I would like a copy of the project. I teach in a community that is somewhat "closed". I think this would be a great project for students. S. Maynor S-Maynor@BellSouth.net This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_001_000C_01C38C27.A53011F0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Ms. Maynor,

 

This project is adapted from a = project I was introduced to at an APUS history how-to seminar. =

 

 I also have a timeline project I = adapted on the Civil Rights Movement per se if you are interested.  I got the idea from a book by a = high school teacher here in Fairfax Co, Mr. Perraco (sp).  The project involves = the construction of a tree.  I = modified it to give them a theme, actual terms to research, and a bibliography on = the post Reconstruction period to supplement the one provided in Mr. = P’s text.  It’s a three = dimensional concept like diagramming a sentence.  It’s interesting to see where students put their = “branches” of the movement.  All = complained about the amount of time spent researching it – so it must be = good.

 

I would recommend culture grams, = bio poems, and concept webs as alternate sources of presentation that = require considerable amount of research by students in primary and secondary = sources, but are more “user friendly” when it comes to = presentation.  Simpler formats than the = traditional research paper can encourage students to take on more projects and open = up your research areas to a broader range of topics.   If students invest in a = project more than just paper gets produced.  Smile.

 

Thank you for your interest.  I’m happy to have = something to contribute as I’ve already learned so much from reading the ideas = shared on this forum.

 

Peace,

 

Susan C. = Strickland

 

 

 

-----Original = Message-----
From: Teaching the Civil = Rights Movement [mailto:CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU] On Behalf Of Susan C. Maynor
Sent: Monday, October 06, = 2003 3:41 PM
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU
Subject: Great = Project

 

Susan,

 

I would like a copy of the project.  I teach in a community that is somewhat "closed".  I think this would be a great project for = students.

 

S. = Maynor

 

S-Maynor@BellSouth.net

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. 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AwAAAAEAAAAAvAEAAAcAAAAAAAAAQAAAAAEAAADAAAAAAgAAAMgAAAADAAAAIAEAAAQAAAAoAQAA BQAAAA== ------=_NextPart_000_000B_01C38C27.A52DC800-- ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 07:43:29 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Roisman, Florence W" Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable With respect to the GI Bill, does anyone have any material or information about the housing provisions of the GI Bill? I've been working on an article on that topic -- it's now very long; one of the principal points I discuss is that non-white veterans were excluded almost entirely from the benefits of the GI Bill (a point made by Oliver & Shapiro in Black Wealth/White Wealth). (Women and almost all lower-income households also were excluded; almost all lower-income households still are excluded.) =20 Florence Wagman Roisman Michael McCormick Professor of Law=20 Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis 530 West New York Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 PHONE: 317 274 4479 FAX: 317 278 3326 EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu =20 -----Original Message----- From: Jennifer Brooks [mailto:jbrooks@TUSCULUM.EDU]=20 Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 7:16 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM When presenting the GI Bill, I usually rely on the standard college history textbook interpretation that, rightly so, presents it as one of the most significant pieces of social legislation passed by Congress, particularly its impact on higher education and its role in expanding the American middle class. However, either through lecture or through primary documents as I mentioned earlier, I also provide the context of anxiety that helped produce the GI Bill, namely, the mix of fear and hope of what these millions of soldiers and sailors, many combat hardened, would do in the US once they returned, particularly if jobs were scarce, etc. This preoccupied a surprising number of commentators, leaders, editors, and others, given the record of veterans' participation in reactionary activities after World War One. This, combined with the information on the exclusion of southern black veterans from full participation in the benefits their service had earned, tends to help balance the notion of the GI Bill as simply reflecting America's pure gratitude to the servicemen and women for fighting the "Good War." Like most social reform, it was the product of a much more complex and political debat. One other note about the CRM: does anyone utilize the rich stories of voter registration projects in the postwar 1940s in their teaching on the CRM? Thanks, Jennifer Brooks Tusculum College 11:57 PM 10/3/03 -0700, you wrote: >Jennifer: Not to get off topic, but in light of your research, how do you >present the GI Bill to your students? Just curious. > >Pete Haro, MA. > >---------- >>From: Jennifer Brooks >>To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU >>Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM >>Date: Fri, Oct 3, 2003, 5:10 AM >> > >> Hello, >> >> Anyone interested in locating primary sources that address the impact of >> World War Two Veterans on the CRM, particularly if you want to extend the >> timeline back into the postwar 1940s, might consider the Southern Regional >> Council's Veterans Services Project records. The SRC sent WWII veterans, >> mostly African American ones, into each of the southern states immediately >> after the Second World War to assess how well southern black veterans were >> utilizing their GI Bill benefits. Their reports and letters back to George >> Mitchell provide a searing record of discrimination at all levels of >> government. This story undermines assumptions about the universal positive >> impact of the GI Bill on the soldiers and sailors who served in the Second >> World War. The evidence of discrimination against these men after the war >> is incontrovertible. >> >> I have used these records successfully in the classroom to bridge the New >> Deal Era to the Brown era for students, and to provide a context for why >> the CRM was necessary. The personal accounts of discrimination in these >> records, along with newspaper accounts of violence against black veterans, >> such as Isaac Woodward in South Carolina, paint a clear portrait for even >> the most apathetic of students. >> >> These records are located on microfilm--you can access information on how >> to find them through the Atlanta University History Center in Atlanta, >> Georgia. >> >> Also, a few months ago I did a search on the web and found a site with >> photos and documents of black veteran Isaac Woodward and his case in the >> postwar 1940s [he was blinded by white policemen in South Carolina over a >> dispute on public transportation just after being discharged from the >> military, while still in his uniform]--this is a great case to use with >> students. I don't remember the web address but a search by his name ought >> to turn it up quickly. >> >> Other authors who discuss black veterans and the CRM: >> >> Michael Honey >> John Dittmer, Local People >> James Cobb, Most Southern Place on Earth >> Neil McMillen, Remaking Dixie >> >> Thanks, >> >> Jennifer Brooks >> Associate Professor of Commons and History >> Tusculum College >> P.O. 5057 >> Greeneville, TN 37743 >> jbrooks@tusculum.edu >> >> >> At 06:30 AM 10/2/03 -0700, you wrote: >>> at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm Although, I would use a fist full of >>>salt for any FBI document that you use. Nishani Frazier Do you Yahoo!? >>> The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is >>>sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >>>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. >> >> This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >> http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 09:07:17 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charity Pitton Subject: MLK and other paradoxes MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_01B4_01C38CB2.681C0540" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_01B4_01C38CB2.681C0540 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Hello all. I teach US History (integrated with English, computer skills, and other subject areas) for a high school distance-learning program. I am only able to spend a couple of weeks on the CRM, and it is an area I need to learn more about. I have greatly appreciated the chance to listen in on your discussions. While it’s frustrating to have to skim over so many facets of history, it does do away with many questions of chronology. We choose a few themes that we follow throughout the year, highlighting those through events and trends. The focus of the curriculum in our courses is leadership, and so many of our themes deal with civil-rights-related issues. Years ago, we gave up trying to find perfect leaders. Columbus mistreated natives, Ben Franklin plagiarized and womanized, Thomas Jefferson kept slaves… All of them are human, and MLK fits the mix very well. While this can be frustrating – it would be nice to offer an ideal – it is much more helpful to the students if we deal with reality. This also means that they can’t dismiss anyone out of hand (“Malcolm X chose violence and so is a bad guy.”), and they can’t excuse themselves from the responsibility of leadership simply because they are young, inexperienced, or make mistakes. MLK in all his glorious imperfection is another opportunity for them to scrutinize what makes great men great. In fact, in some of my courses, that has been the culminating assessment: A presentation on what makes a great leader, in spite of his or her warts. In the little time I have had to discuss the CRM with them, I have been shocked to see the disparity in current beliefs from region to region. When I first began teaching, I assumed all students would agree that integration is/was a good idea. While that is largely true, students from Birmingham (none of them Caucasian) consistently state that they think integration was the wrong way to go: The races will never get along, and so the proper solution is a better attempt at “separate yet equal” rather than a useless attempt at everyone getting along. Hence the paradox that confuses me. In Birmingham, a place where (in my possibly ill-informed picture of events) so many blacks suffered to achieve…?…the children of that generation would come out so strongly in favor of segregation. I have assumed they were struggling to achieve equality/integration, two terms that my Caucasian brain uses somewhat interchangeably. Do I have an incorrect view of what they were trying to achieve with the CRM in Birmingham? Is this just one of those swings of the pendulum to the opposite extreme? Is it truly what my students imply – weariness of attempting the perhaps impossible? (I suppose that would go along with the idea that the CRM has not really ended, nor have racial issues in the US been resolved.) Any insight would be much appreciated, either into the paradox or into good ways to approach this with my students. Thanks. Charity Pitton This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_01B4_01C38CB2.681C0540 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Hello all. I teach US History (integrated with English, computer = skills, and other subject areas) for a high school distance-learning program. I = am only able to spend a couple of weeks on the CRM, and it is an area I need to = learn more about. I have greatly appreciated the chance to listen in on your discussions.

        = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp;           &nb= sp;           &nbs= p;            = ;            =             &= nbsp;           &n= bsp;           &nb= sp;           &nbs= p;            = ;         =

While it’s frustrating to have to skim over so many facets = of history, it does do away with many questions of chronology. We choose a few = themes that we follow throughout the year, highlighting those through events and = trends. The focus of the curriculum in our courses is leadership, and so many of our = themes deal with civil-rights-related issues. Years ago, we gave up trying to = find perfect leaders. Columbus mistreated natives, Ben Franklin plagiarized = and womanized, Thomas Jefferson kept slaves… All of them are human, = and MLK fits the mix very well. While this can be frustrating – it would be = nice to offer an ideal – it is much more helpful to the students if we deal with = reality. This also means that they can’t dismiss anyone out of hand = (“Malcolm X chose violence and so is a bad guy.”), and they can’t excuse = themselves from the responsibility of leadership simply because they are young, = inexperienced, or make mistakes. MLK in all his glorious imperfection is another = opportunity for them to scrutinize what makes great men great. In fact, in some of my = courses, that has been the culminating assessment: A presentation on what makes a = great leader, in spite of his or her = warts.

 

In the little time I have had to discuss the CRM with them, I = have been shocked to see the disparity in current beliefs from region to region. = When I first began teaching, I assumed all students would agree that = integration is/was a good idea. While that is largely true, students from Birmingham = (none of them Caucasian) consistently state that they think integration was = the wrong way to go: The races will never get along, and so the proper solution is = a better attempt at “separate yet equal” rather than a useless = attempt at everyone getting along.

 

Hence the paradox that confuses me. In Birmingham, a place where = (in my possibly ill-informed picture of events) so many blacks suffered to = achieve…?…the children of that generation would come out so strongly in favor of = segregation. I have assumed they were struggling to achieve equality/integration, two = terms that my Caucasian brain uses somewhat interchangeably. Do I have an = incorrect view of what they were trying to achieve with the CRM in Birmingham? Is = this just one of those swings of the pendulum to the opposite extreme? Is it = truly what my students imply – weariness of attempting the perhaps = impossible? (I suppose that would go along with the idea that the CRM has not really = ended, nor have racial issues in the US been resolved.) Any insight would be = much appreciated, either into the paradox or into good ways to approach this = with my students.

 

Thanks.

Charity Pitton

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_01B4_01C38CB2.681C0540-- ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 09:47:24 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charles Payne Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM In-Reply-To: Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed Ask Rhonda Williams at Case Western Reserve in the history dept. She tends to know a lot about public housing issues. CP At 07:43 AM 10/7/2003 -0500, you wrote: >With respect to the GI Bill, does anyone have any material or >information about the housing provisions of the GI Bill? I've been >working on an article on that topic -- it's now very long; one of the >principal points I discuss is that non-white veterans were excluded >almost entirely from the benefits of the GI Bill (a point made by Oliver >& Shapiro in Black Wealth/White Wealth). (Women and almost all >lower-income households also were excluded; almost all lower-income >households still are excluded.) > > >Florence Wagman Roisman >Michael McCormick Professor of Law >Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis >530 West New York Street >Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 >PHONE: 317 274 4479 >FAX: 317 278 3326 >EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu > > >-----Original Message----- >From: Jennifer Brooks [mailto:jbrooks@TUSCULUM.EDU] >Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 7:16 AM >To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU >Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM > >When presenting the GI Bill, I usually rely on the standard college >history >textbook interpretation that, rightly so, presents it as one of the most >significant pieces of social legislation passed by Congress, >particularly >its impact on higher education and its role in expanding the American >middle class. However, either through lecture or through primary >documents >as I mentioned earlier, I also provide the context of anxiety that >helped >produce the GI Bill, namely, the mix of fear and hope of what these >millions of soldiers and sailors, many combat hardened, would do in the >US >once they returned, particularly if jobs were scarce, etc. This >preoccupied >a surprising number of commentators, leaders, editors, and others, given >the record of veterans' participation in reactionary activities after >World >War One. This, combined with the information on the exclusion of >southern >black veterans from full participation in the benefits their service had >earned, tends to help balance the notion of the GI Bill as simply >reflecting America's pure gratitude to the servicemen and women for >fighting the "Good War." Like most social reform, it was the product of >a >much more complex and political debat. > >One other note about the CRM: does anyone utilize the rich stories of >voter >registration projects in the postwar 1940s in their teaching on the CRM? > >Thanks, > >Jennifer Brooks >Tusculum College > > 11:57 PM 10/3/03 -0700, you wrote: > >Jennifer: Not to get off topic, but in light of your research, how do >you > >present the GI Bill to your students? Just curious. > > > >Pete Haro, MA. > > > >---------- > >>From: Jennifer Brooks > >>To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU > >>Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM > >>Date: Fri, Oct 3, 2003, 5:10 AM > >> > > > >> Hello, > >> > >> Anyone interested in locating primary sources that address the impact >of > >> World War Two Veterans on the CRM, particularly if you want to extend >the > >> timeline back into the postwar 1940s, might consider the Southern >Regional > >> Council's Veterans Services Project records. The SRC sent WWII >veterans, > >> mostly African American ones, into each of the southern states >immediately > >> after the Second World War to assess how well southern black veterans >were > >> utilizing their GI Bill benefits. Their reports and letters back to >George > >> Mitchell provide a searing record of discrimination at all levels of > >> government. This story undermines assumptions about the universal >positive > >> impact of the GI Bill on the soldiers and sailors who served in the >Second > >> World War. The evidence of discrimination against these men after the >war > >> is incontrovertible. > >> > >> I have used these records successfully in the classroom to bridge the >New > >> Deal Era to the Brown era for students, and to provide a context for >why > >> the CRM was necessary. The personal accounts of discrimination in >these > >> records, along with newspaper accounts of violence against black >veterans, > >> such as Isaac Woodward in South Carolina, paint a clear portrait for >even > >> the most apathetic of students. > >> > >> These records are located on microfilm--you can access information on >how > >> to find them through the Atlanta University History Center in >Atlanta, > >> Georgia. > >> > >> Also, a few months ago I did a search on the web and found a site >with > >> photos and documents of black veteran Isaac Woodward and his case in >the > >> postwar 1940s [he was blinded by white policemen in South Carolina >over a > >> dispute on public transportation just after being discharged from the > >> military, while still in his uniform]--this is a great case to use >with > >> students. I don't remember the web address but a search by his name >ought > >> to turn it up quickly. > >> > >> Other authors who discuss black veterans and the CRM: > >> > >> Michael Honey > >> John Dittmer, Local People > >> James Cobb, Most Southern Place on Earth > >> Neil McMillen, Remaking Dixie > >> > >> Thanks, > >> > >> Jennifer Brooks > >> Associate Professor of Commons and History > >> Tusculum College > >> P.O. 5057 > >> Greeneville, TN 37743 > >> jbrooks@tusculum.edu > >> > >> > >> At 06:30 AM 10/2/03 -0700, you wrote: > >>> at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm Although, I would use a fist >full of > >>>salt for any FBI document that you use. Nishani Frazier Do you >Yahoo!? > >>> The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is > >>>sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at > >>>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. >History. > >> > >> This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site >at > >> http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. >History. > > > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site >at >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. >History. > > > > > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. >History. > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. African and African American Studies Program Box 90252 The John Hope Franklin Center 2204 Erwin Road Duke University Durham, NC 27708 919-684-2830; fax- 684-2832 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 09:33:44 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Curtis Austin Subject: Re: MLK and other paradoxes MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_003C_01C38CB6.19F94950" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_003C_01C38CB6.19F94950 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable I think your students, especially the ones who grew up in Birmingham, = might have a preference for segregation because its already a daily = reality in their lives---they just want the "equal" to go a long with = the separate---have you had the opportunity to visit the city lately? = With the exception of a few blacks who have "made it," that bastion of = segregation remains just that and it gets played out daily in the = educational system, business affairs, and political of life of the town. The sentiment is the same in Mississippi where I live and teach. But = its the adults (those over 35) that hold that position rather than the = children. And don't ask anybody in the state who lived through the = movement where they stand on the issue. I do oral history for a living = and what they say on tape is quite often vastly different from what they = say when the interview is over or at the point where they ask me to "cut = that thing off sonny boy." To the person, and I obviously have not = interviewed everyone in Mississippi who lived through the movement, = they say "Inagrayshon" was the "wust thang dat coulda eva hapn to black = folk." Of course they have living history and 20/20 hindsight to help = them arrive at this conclusion and I imagine the children in Birmingham = came to the same conclusion via real world experiences. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_003C_01C38CB6.19F94950 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
I think your students, especially the = ones who grew=20 up in Birmingham, might have a preference for segregation because its = already a=20 daily reality in their lives---they just want the "equal" to go a long = with the=20 separate---have you had the opportunity to visit the city lately?  = With the=20 exception of a few blacks who have "made it," that bastion of = segregation=20 remains just that and it gets played out daily in the educational = system,=20 business affairs, and political of life of the town.
 
The sentiment is the same in = Mississippi where I=20 live and teach.  But its the adults (those over 35) that hold that = position=20 rather than the children.  And don't ask anybody in the state who = lived=20 through the movement where they stand on the issue.  I do oral = history for=20 a living and what they say on tape is quite often vastly different from = what=20 they say when the interview is over or at the point where they ask me to = "cut=20 that thing off sonny boy."  To the person, and I obviously have not = interviewed everyone in Mississippi who lived through the movement, = they say=20 "Inagrayshon" was the "wust thang dat coulda eva hapn to black=20 folk." Of course they have living history and 20/20 hindsight to = help them=20 arrive at this conclusion and I imagine the children in Birmingham came = to the=20 same conclusion via real world experiences.
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_003C_01C38CB6.19F94950-- ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 09:50:08 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Todd Moye Subject: Re: Was Brown an important jump start? MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Curtis Austin raises an interesting point. My colleague Worth Long, a former SNCC staffer, uses the term "unviolent" to describe the grass-roots movements he helped organize (mostly in Ark. and Ala.). I think that's a useful term, in that it gets us past what may be the false opposites of violence and non-violence in civil rights movements. It also captures rather perfectly the dynamics of the movements I have studied most closely, in the Mississippi Delta. There the African-Americans were almost all sharecroppers, and if they wanted their families to eat meat other than pork they had to hunt game. Every one of them had a gun and knew how to use it. Whites shot into their homes not infrequently, and there were very few instances of blacks shooting back. This would lead some to conclude that blacks in the Delta were non-violent; given the context, it leads me to conclude that they weren't suicidal. Had the situation changed even a little bit, I can easily imagine a large-scale, violent response to white provocation, at least in that corner of the world. If the movement there was "unviolent" (as I think it was), these folks who had been organized by SCLC and SNCC agreed to give non-violence a chance, but they also kept their guns close by. I suspect that whites would have directed much, much more violence toward them had this not been the case. Todd Moye National Park Service Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 10:36:28 -0500 From: Curtis Austin Subject: Re: Was Brown an important jump start? Another teaching moment we ought not miss is a discussion of the violence/nonviolence paradigm. Did reliance on violence, i.e. self-defense suddenly pop up after Stokeley (Kwame) issued his call for Black Power, or as Tim Tyson suggests, had it been there all along. Speaking of primary sources on the topic, I live in Mississippi and have done numerous interviews with movement activist and almost to the person they describe a physical "armed camp" when it came to organizing in the Magnolia state. Why has this side of the story, with amazingly few exceptions, been left out of the popular and scholarly histories of the movement. I think the students we are responsible for educating need to know as much of the story as we can give them and to downplay the very thing that kept activists breathing seems to be defeating the purpose of teaching movement history. Just wondering. CA This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 10:36:27 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Ginny Nelson Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" This is a bit off the immediate subject, but I would like to pose it anyway since I suspect one of you knows the answer. A question came up in my literature class regarding whether or not pay allotments to families from the members of the armed forces pay checks were issued. When did this start occurring? Was it happening as early as World War I, and was it a choice made by the individual or by the military? -----Original Message----- From: Roisman, Florence W [mailto:froisman@IUPUI.EDU] Sent: Tuesday, October 07, 2003 7:43 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM With respect to the GI Bill, does anyone have any material or information about the housing provisions of the GI Bill? I've been working on an article on that topic -- it's now very long; one of the principal points I discuss is that non-white veterans were excluded almost entirely from the benefits of the GI Bill (a point made by Oliver & Shapiro in Black Wealth/White Wealth). (Women and almost all lower-income households also were excluded; almost all lower-income households still are excluded.) Florence Wagman Roisman Michael McCormick Professor of Law Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis 530 West New York Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 PHONE: 317 274 4479 FAX: 317 278 3326 EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu -----Original Message----- From: Jennifer Brooks [mailto:jbrooks@TUSCULUM.EDU] Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 7:16 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM When presenting the GI Bill, I usually rely on the standard college history textbook interpretation that, rightly so, presents it as one of the most significant pieces of social legislation passed by Congress, particularly its impact on higher education and its role in expanding the American middle class. However, either through lecture or through primary documents as I mentioned earlier, I also provide the context of anxiety that helped produce the GI Bill, namely, the mix of fear and hope of what these millions of soldiers and sailors, many combat hardened, would do in the US once they returned, particularly if jobs were scarce, etc. This preoccupied a surprising number of commentators, leaders, editors, and others, given the record of veterans' participation in reactionary activities after World War One. This, combined with the information on the exclusion of southern black veterans from full participation in the benefits their service had earned, tends to help balance the notion of the GI Bill as simply reflecting America's pure gratitude to the servicemen and women for fighting the "Good War." Like most social reform, it was the product of a much more complex and political debat. One other note about the CRM: does anyone utilize the rich stories of voter registration projects in the postwar 1940s in their teaching on the CRM? Thanks, Jennifer Brooks Tusculum College 11:57 PM 10/3/03 -0700, you wrote: >Jennifer: Not to get off topic, but in light of your research, how do you >present the GI Bill to your students? Just curious. > >Pete Haro, MA. > >---------- >>From: Jennifer Brooks >>To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU >>Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM >>Date: Fri, Oct 3, 2003, 5:10 AM >> > >> Hello, >> >> Anyone interested in locating primary sources that address the impact of >> World War Two Veterans on the CRM, particularly if you want to extend the >> timeline back into the postwar 1940s, might consider the Southern Regional >> Council's Veterans Services Project records. The SRC sent WWII veterans, >> mostly African American ones, into each of the southern states immediately >> after the Second World War to assess how well southern black veterans were >> utilizing their GI Bill benefits. Their reports and letters back to George >> Mitchell provide a searing record of discrimination at all levels of >> government. This story undermines assumptions about the universal positive >> impact of the GI Bill on the soldiers and sailors who served in the Second >> World War. The evidence of discrimination against these men after the war >> is incontrovertible. >> >> I have used these records successfully in the classroom to bridge the New >> Deal Era to the Brown era for students, and to provide a context for why >> the CRM was necessary. The personal accounts of discrimination in these >> records, along with newspaper accounts of violence against black veterans, >> such as Isaac Woodward in South Carolina, paint a clear portrait for even >> the most apathetic of students. >> >> These records are located on microfilm--you can access information on how >> to find them through the Atlanta University History Center in Atlanta, >> Georgia. >> >> Also, a few months ago I did a search on the web and found a site with >> photos and documents of black veteran Isaac Woodward and his case in the >> postwar 1940s [he was blinded by white policemen in South Carolina over a >> dispute on public transportation just after being discharged from the >> military, while still in his uniform]--this is a great case to use with >> students. I don't remember the web address but a search by his name ought >> to turn it up quickly. >> >> Other authors who discuss black veterans and the CRM: >> >> Michael Honey >> John Dittmer, Local People >> James Cobb, Most Southern Place on Earth >> Neil McMillen, Remaking Dixie >> >> Thanks, >> >> Jennifer Brooks >> Associate Professor of Commons and History >> Tusculum College >> P.O. 5057 >> Greeneville, TN 37743 >> jbrooks@tusculum.edu >> >> >> At 06:30 AM 10/2/03 -0700, you wrote: >>> at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm Although, I would use a fist full of >>>salt for any FBI document that you use. Nishani Frazier Do you Yahoo!? >>> The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is >>>sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >>>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. >> >> This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >> http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 09:31:38 -0600 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jill Gill Subject: Re: MLK and other paradoxes Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: inline Curtis Austin writes: "To the person, and I obviously have not interviewed everyone in Mississippi who lived through the movement, they say "Inagrayshon" was the "wust thang dat coulda eva hapn to black folk." Of course they have living history and 20/20 hindsight to help them arrive at this conclusion and I imagine the children in Birmingham came to the same conclusion via real world experiences." Fascinating! Please share more. I'm teaching a course on the CRM in Boise, Idaho where it is difficult for my students and I to get a grasp on how black Americans today, who either lived through the CRM or are living with the repercussions of it and its successes/failures, assess it, its strategies and goals. You mentioned that blacks in Birmingham today are probably responding to the fact that they still live largely segregated and therefore simply want equality within a segregated environment. But why do you think that the older ones see integration as the worst thing that could happen to them. What are they saying to you off the record that are the hindsight lessons to them? Please continue to enlighten us! Thank you, Jill Gill Boise State University This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 11:56:26 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charles Payne Subject: Recommended film Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed -------- Original Message -------- Subject: Re: [Fwd: Opening Statement from Charles Payne] Date: Thu, 02 Oct 2003 21:35:06 +0000 From: "Joyce King" To: hmach@email.unc.edu Hello, Howard. I'm writing from Brazil and don't have all my resources handy. Quickly, I woulr recommend the new Icarus Films (Brooklyn) documentary: "An Intolerable Burden." It's about an "ordinary family" in Mississippi and school desegregation. Powerful examination of "complicated consequences." Very excellent "eyewitness" accounts--white and black folks then and now. Please forward to Charles Payne. Thanks, Joyce King Other than "Eyes on the Prize," are there audiovisual products that you have been impressed with? Have you found ways to teach that emphasize the role of "ordinary" people in making change? Ways of getting students to think more deeply about what "citizenship" is or should be? How do you deal with issues of gender in the movement? This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 14:06:53 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Derek Catsam Subject: Disjointed thoughts . . . Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/html


My goodness, what an embarrassment of riches this discussion board has already presented to us!

I'd like to add a smattering of comments to respond to points that have been made and made effectively.

On the issue of nonviolence: On the Freedom Rides, or I should say the first Ride (excluding the Journey of reconciliation, of course -- language is tricky here!) there was an interesting divide. the white riders almost without fail were as much from the peace community as from the "civil rights community" if that divide even has legitimacy. Think James Peck, the Bergmans, and Albert bigalow, all avowed pacifists. It was among the black community that you get a more complex mix -- sure, there were many like John Lewis, clearly devoted to a nonviolent struggle. But there also were folks like Jimmy McDonald and even, later in his life, James Farmer, for whom nonviolence was more modus operendi than modus vivendi. jimmy McDonald, in a mild confrontation with befuddled whites during a CORE picket, when asked how many times he'd turn the other cheek said something to the effect that after once or twice someone would have a size ten-and-a-half up their ass!

On Brown: I have been thinking a lot lately of how to conceptualize this, and here is what I have come up with: I think of Brown as a "fulcrum moment" (I'm copywriting the term, y'all!) inasmuch as it was neither an end point nor a starting point. It was an event, however, upon which a great deal hinged. To thgink of it as a starting point would be to deny the incredile work, indeed in its way activism, of the NAACP's LDF and folks like Charles hamilton Houston, et. al. And obviously it was not an end point. Instead, it was a point upon which things may well have hinged or turned. The Backlash Thesis is fascinating and has provoked a great deal of discussion, but in many ways it overlooks (or perhaps inadvertanly reveals) how for many people Brown was cause for celebration, but in and of itself it did not start anything (surely there was a movement going on before brown, as Pat Sullivan, John Egerton, Aldon Morris and innumerable othere, including I hope soon myself, have begun to illustrate) but rather reaffirmed the fundamental rightness of a longstanding cause.

On being scared: I simply love Joan Browning's response! Partially this is so because i like the fact that there was human frailty there -- of course people were scared. But they persevered. That, and not simply blindly rushing in to a fray, is what defines heroism in my book.

Derek Catsam
Department of History
110 Armstrong Hall
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Mankato, MN 56001
(o) 507-389-5314
(h) 507-625-7807


Help protect your PC. Get a FREE computer virus scan online from McAfee. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 12:30:22 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Calvin Smith Subject: Re: Was Brown an important jump start? In-Reply-To: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Other than a few violent uprisings during the slavery era black Americans, as a people, rarely demonstrated violent tendencies toward their white oppressors except in rare cases of individual self defense. They have not resorted to night riding, bombing, or other terror tactis to press their cause for full inclusion into the American mainstream. Rather they have sought through peaceful protest to make American rhetoric (christian principles, freedom, equality, etc.), a reality. C. Smith Arkansas State University -----Original Message----- From: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement [mailto:CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU]On Behalf Of Todd Moye Sent: Tuesday, October 07, 2003 8:50 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re: Was Brown an important jump start? Curtis Austin raises an interesting point. My colleague Worth Long, a former SNCC staffer, uses the term "unviolent" to describe the grass-roots movements he helped organize (mostly in Ark. and Ala.). I think that's a useful term, in that it gets us past what may be the false opposites of violence and non-violence in civil rights movements. It also captures rather perfectly the dynamics of the movements I have studied most closely, in the Mississippi Delta. There the African-Americans were almost all sharecroppers, and if they wanted their families to eat meat other than pork they had to hunt game. Every one of them had a gun and knew how to use it. Whites shot into their homes not infrequently, and there were very few instances of blacks shooting back. This would lead some to conclude that blacks in the Delta were non-violent; given the context, it leads me to conclude that they weren't suicidal. Had the situation changed even a little bit, I can easily imagine a large-scale, violent response to white provocation, at least in that corner of the world. If the movement there was "unviolent" (as I think it was), these folks who had been organized by SCLC and SNCC agreed to give non-violence a chance, but they also kept their guns close by. I suspect that whites would have directed much, much more violence toward them had this not been the case. Todd Moye National Park Service Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 10:36:28 -0500 From: Curtis Austin Subject: Re: Was Brown an important jump start? Another teaching moment we ought not miss is a discussion of the violence/nonviolence paradigm. Did reliance on violence, i.e. self-defense suddenly pop up after Stokeley (Kwame) issued his call for Black Power, or as Tim Tyson suggests, had it been there all along. Speaking of primary sources on the topic, I live in Mississippi and have done numerous interviews with movement activist and almost to the person they describe a physical "armed camp" when it came to organizing in the Magnolia state. Why has this side of the story, with amazingly few exceptions, been left out of the popular and scholarly histories of the movement. I think the students we are responsible for educating need to know as much of the story as we can give them and to downplay the very thing that kept activists breathing seems to be defeating the purpose of teaching movement history. Just wondering. CA This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 13:01:49 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Rachel B. Reinhard" Subject: Law and Social Change Course In-Reply-To: Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; types="text/plain,text/html"; boundary="=====================_3529665==_.ALT" --=====================_3529665==_.ALT Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" I am a graduate student whose work focuses on the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. I just got back from a research trip in MS. As a result, this tardy reply to Florence Roisman's earlier email about law and social change. It appears from this exchange that we are all looking for ways to complicate traditional narratives. I would suggest not only examining metanarratives but also studying state or local struggles. Frank Parker's Black Votes Count (UNC Press: 1990) details the legal battles in Mississippi over the right to vote following the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Parker was a civil rights attorney who worked to overturn many of the MS legislature's attempts to dilute the black vote through at large voting, redistricting, and the creation of multi-member districts. His book chronicles this process of gaining a more meaningful vote. He also has a shorter piece on the battle over redistricting in the MS Law Journal, volume 44, number 3, June 1973. Rachel B. Reinhard Graduate Student, History UC, Berkeley P.S. A personal aside. I think I went to pre-school with your daughter. At 12:53 PM 10/1/2003 , you wrote: >I am a law professor who will teach in the Spring a new course, Law and >Social Change, which will focus on "the" civil rights movement, from >about 1944 to about 1978. I have two goals for the course. The easier >one is for students to learn something about what happened during the >CRM. The other is for students to consider the many relationships >among law, legal change, and social change. > >I teach a fair amount of civil rights material in other courses, >including the required, first year, Property course. I find that most >students are astoundingly ignorant even about basic facts. > >I'll be developing the syllabus this semester, and look forward to >getting ideas from this exchange. I expect to use many of the Eyes on >the Prize videos and the Juan Williams book, as well as Taylor Branch's >Parting the Waters and Adam Fairclough's Better Day Coming. (I'll be >giving the students edited versions of cases and statutes.) > >I would like students to understand the very different approaches of the >NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Dr. King and SCLC, SNCC, and CORE, and to >consider the various contributions of art, religion, direct action, >personal courage, lobbying, litigation, and luck. As Professor Payne >suggests, I hope students will understand the many ways in which the >Movement and the country have not yet succeeded -- with respect to >integrated education and housing, equal employment opportunity, economic >justice, and peace. > > >Florence Wagman Roisman >Michael McCormick Professor of Law >Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis >530 West New York Street >Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 >PHONE: 317 274 4479 >FAX: 317 278 3326 >EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --=====================_3529665==_.ALT Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" I am a graduate student whose work focuses on the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.  I just got back from a research trip in MS.  As a result, this tardy reply to Florence Roisman's earlier email about law and social change.

It appears from this exchange that we are all looking for ways to complicate traditional narratives.  I would suggest not only examining metanarratives but also studying state or local struggles.  Frank Parker's Black Votes Count (UNC Press:  1990) details the legal battles in Mississippi over the right to vote following the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act.  Parker was a civil rights attorney who worked to overturn many of the MS legislature's attempts to dilute the black vote through at large voting, redistricting, and the creation of multi-member districts.  His book chronicles this process of gaining a more meaningful vote.  He also has a shorter piece on the battle over redistricting in the MS Law Journal, volume 44, number 3, June 1973.

Rachel B. Reinhard
Graduate Student, History
UC, Berkeley

P.S.  A personal aside.  I think I went to pre-school with your daughter.


At 12:53 PM 10/1/2003 , you wrote:
>I am a law professor who will teach in the Spring a new course, Law and
>Social Change, which will focus on  "the" civil rights movement, from
>about 1944 to about 1978.  I have two goals for the course.  The easier
>one is for students to learn something about what happened during the
>CRM.  The other is for students to  consider the many relationships
>among law, legal change,  and social change. 
>
>I teach a fair amount of civil rights material in other courses,
>including the required, first year, Property course.  I find that most
>students are astoundingly ignorant even about basic facts. 
>
>I'll be developing the syllabus this semester, and look forward to
>getting ideas from this exchange.  I expect to use many of the Eyes on
>the Prize videos and the Juan Williams book, as well as Taylor Branch's
>Parting the Waters and Adam Fairclough's Better Day Coming.  (I'll be
>giving the students edited versions of cases and statutes.) 
>
>I would like students to understand the very different approaches of the
>NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Dr. King and SCLC, SNCC, and CORE, and to
>consider the various contributions of art, religion, direct action,
>personal courage, lobbying, litigation, and luck.  As Professor Payne
>suggests, I hope students will understand the many ways in which the
>Movement and the country have not yet succeeded -- with respect to
>integrated education and housing, equal employment opportunity, economic
>justice, and peace.
>
>
>Florence Wagman Roisman
>Michael McCormick Professor of Law
>Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis
>530 West New York Street
>Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225
>PHONE: 317 274 4479
>FAX: 317 278 3326
>EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu
>
>This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.
>
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --=====================_3529665==_.ALT-- ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 7 Oct 2003 16:46:51 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Walter Hickel Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Disposition: inline The U.S. army set up a system of mandatory pay allotments for enlisted men = (but not officers), supplemented by a government allowance, during World = War I. I've written about the system of family allotments and allowances, = including its effect on the labor relations between black agricultural and = domestic workers and their white employers in the South, in an article = published in the March 2001 issue of the Journal of American History. = While the many black beneficiaries of allotments and allowances at the = time discussed the system's effects explicitly in terms of civil rights, = the fact that black beneficiaries (almost all of them women) for the first = time could afford to leave poorly-paid work, and the resulting attempts by = white employers to stem the flow of family support payments to their black = workers, highlighted the connection between equal entitlement to government= provisions (a matter of civil rights) and economic advancement. As some = of you have remarked, these issues came to the fore again later in the = course of the CRM, during the second half of the 1960s. K. Walter Hickel, Ph.D. History of Medicine Division National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20894 Phone: (301) 435-8216 Fax: (301) 402-7034 e-mail: hickelw@mail.nlm.nih.gov >>> gnelson@JCCC.NET 10/07/03 11:36AM >>> This is a bit off the immediate subject, but I would like to pose it = anyway since I suspect one of you knows the answer. A question came up in my literature class regarding whether or not pay allotments to families from the members of the armed forces pay checks were issued. When did this = start occurring? Was it happening as early as World War I, and was it a choice made by the individual or by the military? -----Original Message----- From: Roisman, Florence W [mailto:froisman@IUPUI.EDU]=20 Sent: Tuesday, October 07, 2003 7:43 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM With respect to the GI Bill, does anyone have any material or information about the housing provisions of the GI Bill? I've been working on an article on that topic -- it's now very long; one of the principal points I discuss is that non-white veterans were excluded almost entirely from the benefits of the GI Bill (a point made by Oliver & Shapiro in Black Wealth/White Wealth). (Women and almost all lower-income households also were excluded; almost all lower-income households still are excluded.) Florence Wagman Roisman Michael McCormick Professor of Law Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis 530 West New York Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 PHONE: 317 274 4479 FAX: 317 278 3326 EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu=20 -----Original Message----- From: Jennifer Brooks [mailto:jbrooks@TUSCULUM.EDU]=20 Sent: Monday, October 06, 2003 7:16 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM When presenting the GI Bill, I usually rely on the standard college history textbook interpretation that, rightly so, presents it as one of the most significant pieces of social legislation passed by Congress, particularly its impact on higher education and its role in expanding the American middle class. However, either through lecture or through primary documents as I mentioned earlier, I also provide the context of anxiety that helped produce the GI Bill, namely, the mix of fear and hope of what these millions of soldiers and sailors, many combat hardened, would do in the US once they returned, particularly if jobs were scarce, etc. This preoccupied a surprising number of commentators, leaders, editors, and others, given the record of veterans' participation in reactionary activities after World War One. This, combined with the information on the exclusion of southern black veterans from full participation in the benefits their service had earned, tends to help balance the notion of the GI Bill as simply reflecting America's pure gratitude to the servicemen and women for fighting the "Good War." Like most social reform, it was the product of a much more complex and political debat. One other note about the CRM: does anyone utilize the rich stories of voter registration projects in the postwar 1940s in their teaching on the CRM? Thanks, Jennifer Brooks Tusculum College 11:57 PM 10/3/03 -0700, you wrote: >Jennifer: Not to get off topic, but in light of your research, how do you >present the GI Bill to your students? Just curious. > >Pete Haro, MA. > >---------- >>From: Jennifer Brooks >>To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 >>Subject: Re: WWII vets and CRM >>Date: Fri, Oct 3, 2003, 5:10 AM >> > >> Hello, >> >> Anyone interested in locating primary sources that address the impact of >> World War Two Veterans on the CRM, particularly if you want to extend the >> timeline back into the postwar 1940s, might consider the Southern Regional >> Council's Veterans Services Project records. The SRC sent WWII veterans, >> mostly African American ones, into each of the southern states immediately >> after the Second World War to assess how well southern black veterans were >> utilizing their GI Bill benefits. Their reports and letters back to George >> Mitchell provide a searing record of discrimination at all levels of >> government. This story undermines assumptions about the universal positive >> impact of the GI Bill on the soldiers and sailors who served in the Second >> World War. The evidence of discrimination against these men after the war >> is incontrovertible. >> >> I have used these records successfully in the classroom to bridge the New >> Deal Era to the Brown era for students, and to provide a context for why >> the CRM was necessary. The personal accounts of discrimination in these >> records, along with newspaper accounts of violence against black veterans, >> such as Isaac Woodward in South Carolina, paint a clear portrait for even >> the most apathetic of students. >> >> These records are located on microfilm--you can access information on how >> to find them through the Atlanta University History Center in Atlanta, >> Georgia. >> >> Also, a few months ago I did a search on the web and found a site with >> photos and documents of black veteran Isaac Woodward and his case in the >> postwar 1940s [he was blinded by white policemen in South Carolina over a >> dispute on public transportation just after being discharged from the >> military, while still in his uniform]--this is a great case to use with >> students. I don't remember the web address but a search by his name ought >> to turn it up quickly. >> >> Other authors who discuss black veterans and the CRM: >> >> Michael Honey >> John Dittmer, Local People >> James Cobb, Most Southern Place on Earth >> Neil McMillen, Remaking Dixie >> >> Thanks, >> >> Jennifer Brooks >> Associate Professor of Commons and History >> Tusculum College >> P.O. 5057 >> Greeneville, TN 37743 >> jbrooks@tusculum.edu=20 >> >> >> At 06:30 AM 10/2/03 -0700, you wrote: >>> at http://foia.fbi.gov/room.htm Although, I would use a fist full of >>>salt for any FBI document that you use. Nishani Frazier Do you Yahoo!? >>> The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is >>>sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >>>http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. >> >> This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at >> http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 9 Oct 2003 11:39:59 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Ann Short Chirhart Subject: Women and the CRM Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed Shouldn't we distinguish between activism and an actual movement? In other did the activism before the 1930s lead to the development of a movement culture? I'm thinking of Martin Sklar's definition of a movement here. As far as our consideration of the GI Bill, we must remember that women were excluded from its provisions. I would like to see more about women in the CRM, women in addition to Fannie Lou Hamer and Ella Baker. Payne does a terrific job describing the involvement of women in the movement in Mississippi. What I have discovered is that women teachers in Georgia were active in creating the beginnings of the movement in Georgia. Teachers tend to get ignored in the history of the movement. To me, they occupy a salient position. Finally, what are some of the issues about Anne Moody's biography that are questionable? I teach this book often and would like to know. Perhaps Joan Browning could talk about women in the CRM. Thanks, Ann Dr. Ann Short Chirhart Assistant Professor of American History Department of History Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN 47809 812-237-2723 aschir@ma.rr.com This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 9 Oct 2003 13:14:27 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Victoria Wolcott Subject: GI Bill In-Reply-To: <5.2.1.1.2.20031009113357.00a15750@pop-server.ma.rr.com> Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="============_-1146402827==_ma============" --============_-1146402827==_ma============ Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" ; format="flowed" Lizabeth Cohen has an excellent discussion of the GI Bill's limited provisions for African-Americans in her new book A Consumer's Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America. I would highly recommend her analysis for anyone interested in how the GI Bill implicitly and explicitly discriminated against African Americans. She also makes a powerful case for linking consumerism to the civil rights movement, even arguing "Mass consumption begot a mass civil rights movement" (190). Much of the civil rights activity of CORE and others, particularly in the North, centered on access to public accommodations that symbolized prosperity and leisure to postwar America (swimming pools, theaters, etc.). In my own research I am looking at these links between civil rights and consumerism in the urban North. Like others on this list I have tried to rethink the false dichotomy of North/South when teaching the Civil Rights movement and African-American history here at the University of Rochester. Victoria Wolcott Assistant Professor Department of History University of Rochester >Shouldn't we distinguish between activism and an actual movement? In other >did the activism before the 1930s lead to the development of a movement >culture? I'm thinking of Martin Sklar's definition of a movement here. > >As far as our consideration of the GI Bill, we must remember that women >were excluded from its provisions. I would like to see more about women in >the CRM, women in addition to Fannie Lou Hamer and Ella Baker. Payne does >a terrific job describing the involvement of women in the movement in >Mississippi. What I have discovered is that women teachers in Georgia were >active in creating the beginnings of the movement in Georgia. Teachers >tend to get ignored in the history of the movement. To me, they occupy a >salient position. > >Finally, what are some of the issues about Anne Moody's biography that are >questionable? I teach this book often and would like to know. Perhaps >Joan Browning could talk about women in the CRM. >Thanks, >Ann > > > >Dr. Ann Short Chirhart >Assistant Professor of American History >Department of History >Indiana State University >Terre Haute, IN 47809 >812-237-2723 >aschir@ma.rr.com > >This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web >site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for >teaching U.S. History. -- Victoria W. Wolcott Assistant Professor Department of History University of Rochester This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --============_-1146402827==_ma============ Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" GI Bill
Lizabeth Cohen has an excellent discussion of the GI Bill's limited provisions for African-Americans in her new book A Consumer's Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America.  I would highly recommend her analysis for anyone interested in how the GI Bill implicitly and explicitly discriminated against African Americans.  She also makes a powerful case for linking consumerism to the civil rights movement, even arguing "Mass consumption begot a mass civil rights movement" (190).  Much of the civil rights activity of CORE and others, particularly in the North, centered on access to public accommodations that symbolized prosperity and leisure to postwar America (swimming pools, theaters, etc.).
   In my own research I am looking at these links between civil rights and consumerism in the urban North.  Like others on this list I have tried to rethink the false dichotomy of North/South when teaching the Civil Rights movement and African-American history here at the University of Rochester.

Victoria Wolcott
Assistant Professor
Department of History
University of Rochester


Shouldn't we distinguish between activism and an actual movement?  In other
did the activism before the 1930s lead to the development of a movement
culture?  I'm thinking of Martin Sklar's definition of a movement here.

As far as our consideration of the GI Bill, we must remember that women
were excluded from its provisions.  I would like to see more about women in
the CRM, women in addition to Fannie Lou Hamer and Ella Baker.  Payne does
a terrific job describing the involvement of women in the movement in
Mississippi.  What I have discovered is that women teachers in Georgia were
active in creating the beginnings of the movement in Georgia.  Teachers
tend to get ignored in the history of the movement.  To me, they occupy a
salient position.

Finally, what are some of the issues about Anne Moody's biography that are
questionable?  I teach this book often and would like to know.  Perhaps
Joan Browning could talk about women in the CRM.
Thanks,
Ann



Dr. Ann Short Chirhart
Assistant Professor of American History
Department of History
Indiana State University
Terre Haute, IN 47809
812-237-2723
aschir@ma.rr.com

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.


--
Victoria W. Wolcott
Assistant Professor
Department of History
University of Rochester
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --============_-1146402827==_ma============-- ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 9 Oct 2003 11:39:52 -0700 Reply-To: Peter Haro Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Peter Haro Subject: Re: GI Bill Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO646-US Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable GI Bill
Victoria: What kind of numbers can we reference in terms of how many A= frican-Americans were denied the benefits of the GI Bill? Some notable Afri= can-Americans, such as Harry Belafonte and Dr. Andrew Brimmer (the first Af= rican-American appointed to the Federal Reserve Board), have spoken out reg= arding how much the GI Bill changed their lives. Both men have acknowledged= that without the GI Bill, their subsequent careers in entertainment and ac= ademia would not have been possible. I think that some clarification is nee= ded on the issue of exactly how many African-Americans were being denied be= nefits. Sincerely, Pete Haro.


-----Original Message-----
Fro= m: Victoria Wolcott
Sent: Oct 9, 2003 10:14 AM=
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU
Subject: GI Bill

Lizabeth Cohen has an excellent discussion of the GI Bill'slimited pro= visions for African-Americans in her new book AConsumer's Republic: The = Politics of Mass Consumption in PostwarAmerica.  I would highly re= commend her analysis for anyoneinterested in how the GI Bill implicitly and= explicitly discriminatedagainst African Americans.  She also makes a = powerful case forlinking consumerism to the civil rights movement, even arg= uing "Mass consumption be= got amass civil rights movement" (190).  Much of the civil rightsactiv= ity of CORE and others, particularly in the North, centered onaccess to pub= lic accommodations that symbolized prosperity and leisureto postwar America= (swimming pools, theaters, etc.).
   In myown res= earch I am looking at these links between civil rights andconsumerism in th= e urban North.  Like others on this list I havetried to rethink the fa= lse dichotomy of North/South when teaching theCivil Rights movement and Afr= ican-American history here at theUniversity of Rochester.

VictoriaWolcott
AssistantProfessor=
Department ofHistory
University ofRochester


Shouldn't we distinguish between activi= smand an actual movement?  In other
did the activism before the 193= 0s lead to the development of amovement
culture?  I'm thinking of M= artin Sklar's definition of a movementhere.

As far as our considerat= ion of the GI Bill, we must remember thatwomen
were excluded from its pr= ovisions.  I would like to see moreabout women in
the CRM, women in= addition to Fannie Lou Hamer and Ella Baker. Payne does
a terrific= job describing the involvement of women in the movementin
Mississippi.&= nbsp; What I have discovered is that women teachers inGeorgia were
activ= e in creating the beginnings of the movement in Georgia. Teachers
t= end to get ignored in the history of the movement.  To me, theyoccupy = a
salient position.

Finally, what are some of the issues about An= ne Moody's biography thatare
questionable?  I teach this book often= and would like to know. Perhaps
Joan Browning could talk about wom= en in the CRM.
Thanks,
Ann



Dr. Ann Short Chirhart
A= ssistant Professor of American History
Department of History
Indiana = State University
Terre Haute, IN 47809
812-237-2723
aschir@ma.rr.c= om

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web = siteat http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S.Hi= story.


--
Victoria W. Wolcott
Assistant Professor
Department of HistoryUniversity of Rochester
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--p= lease visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resource= s for teaching U.S. History.
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 9 Oct 2003 11:45:20 -0700 Reply-To: Peter Haro Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Peter Haro Subject: Re: Women and the CRM Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Dear Dr. Chirart: I have to disagree with you on women and the GI Bill. Numerous women were able to utilize its benefits to attend colleges after World War II. The biggest problem facing women after the war was that they were overwhelmingly constrained by traditional gender roles which painted domesticity as their ideal environment. However, this did not mean that women veterans were not able to take advantage of the GI Bill. Pete Haro MA. -----Original Message----- From: Ann Short Chirhart Sent: Oct 9, 2003 9:39 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Women and the CRM Shouldn't we distinguish between activism and an actual movement? In other did the activism before the 1930s lead to the development of a movement culture? I'm thinking of Martin Sklar's definition of a movement here. As far as our consideration of the GI Bill, we must remember that women were excluded from its provisions. I would like to see more about women in the CRM, women in addition to Fannie Lou Hamer and Ella Baker. Payne does a terrific job describing the involvement of women in the movement in Mississippi. What I have discovered is that women teachers in Georgia were active in creating the beginnings of the movement in Georgia. Teachers tend to get ignored in the history of the movement. To me, they occupy a salient position. Finally, what are some of the issues about Anne Moody's biography that are questionable? I teach this book often and would like to know. Perhaps Joan Browning could talk about women in the CRM. Thanks, Ann Dr. Ann Short Chirhart Assistant Professor of American History Department of History Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN 47809 812-237-2723 aschir@ma.rr.com This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 9 Oct 2003 15:06:19 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Roisman, Florence W" Subject: Re: Women and the CRM Comments: To: Peter Haro MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="----_=_NextPart_001_01C38EA0.CDCAEE34" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------_=_NextPart_001_01C38EA0.CDCAEE34 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable May I point out that these references to "the GI Bill" concern the educational benefits of the bill, not the housing provisions? (I do know the Cohen book, but found its statements not well supported.) With respect to women, I attach a small excerpt from my draft article. This excerpt deals with the difficulties women faced in using the housing provisions of the GI Bill. I would be grateful for any corrections, additions, or other ideas that people have about the housing provisions. =20 Florence Wagman Roisman Michael McCormick Professor of Law=20 Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis 530 West New York Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 PHONE: 317 274 4479 FAX: 317 278 3326 EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu =20 -----Original Message----- From: Peter Haro [mailto:pkharo@earthlink.net]=20 Sent: Thursday, October 09, 2003 1:45 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re: Women and the CRM Dear Dr. Chirart: I have to disagree with you on women and the GI Bill. Numerous women were able to utilize its benefits to attend colleges after World War II. The biggest problem facing women after the war was that they were overwhelmingly constrained by traditional gender roles which painted domesticity as their ideal environment. However, this did not mean that women veterans were not able to take advantage of the GI Bill. Pete Haro MA. -----Original Message----- From: Ann Short Chirhart Sent: Oct 9, 2003 9:39 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Women and the CRM Shouldn't we distinguish between activism and an actual movement? In other did the activism before the 1930s lead to the development of a movement culture? I'm thinking of Martin Sklar's definition of a movement here. As far as our consideration of the GI Bill, we must remember that women were excluded from its provisions. I would like to see more about women in the CRM, women in addition to Fannie Lou Hamer and Ella Baker. Payne does a terrific job describing the involvement of women in the movement in Mississippi. What I have discovered is that women teachers in Georgia were active in creating the beginnings of the movement in Georgia. Teachers tend to get ignored in the history of the movement. To me, they occupy a salient position. Finally, what are some of the issues about Anne Moody's biography that are questionable? I teach this book often and would like to know. Perhaps Joan Browning could talk about women in the CRM. Thanks, Ann Dr. Ann Short Chirhart Assistant Professor of American History Department of History Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN 47809 812-237-2723 aschir@ma.rr.com This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. 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MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="Windows-1252" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable I had an interesting experience this summer. On a small curriculum = development grant grant I was able to visit some significant civil = rights sites in Mississippi and Alabama. Next spring I will do a trek = to Greensboro and possibly one other place before the funds are = exhausted. =20 The purpose of this post, however, is to suggest that I was missing a = lot of analyses about the South and the Movement that I would not have = been aware of without physically being there. Specifically, there are a = number of excellent books about the Movement and the region that are not = widely publicized because the authors are "local" as opposed to having = national exposure. Hanging out in Barnes and Noble, as well as a few = local bookstores, there are some excellent works about the region and = the period that I had never seen advertised. In fact, I ended up using = much of the funds for the grant on books as opposed to travel expenses. I also visited a number of museums along the way. I found the museum = in Jackson in the Old Capitol building to have some excellent exhibits. = Likewise, also in Jackson, and though it is in need of more funds and = development, the African American museum in the old Smith-Robertson = school building was informative, as well. The National Voting Rights = Museum and Institute captures the Selma struggle. The best funded and = most elaborate was the Civil Rights Museum in Birmingham. A similar = case could be made for the Rosa Parks Museum and Library in Montgomery. = Mind-boggling was Cottonlandia in Greenwood, Ms. Like the museum in the = Old Capitol in Jackson, this museum covers a time period from America's = native population on the land in Mississippi to present but without a = SINGLE mention of slavery!!! In fact, there may have been only one or = two blacks pictured in the whole museum. It is possible that there is = some denial going on in Greenwood? Robert Newby Professor Sociology Central Michigan University Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 9 Oct 2003 17:08:48 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Tara White Subject: Re: Southern Bibliographies.... MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="windows-1252" As a historian and museum professional, I am interested in further comments about the museums. I am also interested in how people who research, teach, and write about the civil rights movement see the recent number of museums and sites that interpret various aspects of the movement. Tara White Assistant Site Director, Alabama State Capitol Site Director, Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station Alabama Historical Commission 468 South Perry Street Montgomery, Alabama 36130 334-242-3188 -----Original Message----- From: Newby, Robert [mailto:newby1rg@CMICH.EDU] Sent: Thursday, October 09, 2003 1:25 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Southern Bibliographies.... I had an interesting experience this summer. On a small curriculum development grant grant I was able to visit some significant civil rights sites in Mississippi and Alabama. Next spring I will do a trek to Greensboro and possibly one other place before the funds are exhausted. The purpose of this post, however, is to suggest that I was missing a lot of analyses about the South and the Movement that I would not have been aware of without physically being there. Specifically, there are a number of excellent books about the Movement and the region that are not widely publicized because the authors are "local" as opposed to having national exposure. Hanging out in Barnes and Noble, as well as a few local bookstores, there are some excellent works about the region and the period that I had never seen advertised. In fact, I ended up using much of the funds for the grant on books as opposed to travel expenses. I also visited a number of museums along the way. I found the museum in Jackson in the Old Capitol building to have some excellent exhibits. Likewise, also in Jackson, and though it is in need of more funds and development, the African American museum in the old Smith-Robertson school building was informative, as well. The National Voting Rights Museum and Institute captures the Selma struggle. The best funded and most elaborate was the Civil Rights Museum in Birmingham. A similar case could be made for the Rosa Parks Museum and Library in Montgomery. Mind-boggling was Cottonlandia in Greenwood, Ms. Like the museum in the Old Capitol in Jackson, this museum covers a time period from America's native population on the land in Mississippi to present but without a SINGLE mention of slavery!!! In fact, there may have been only one or two blacks pictured in the whole museum. It is possible that there is some denial going on in Greenwood? Robert Newby Professor Sociology Central Michigan University Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 10 Oct 2003 23:22:31 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kristine Boeke Subject: violence/nonviolence I have shown an interesting film recently produced by Showtime called Deacons for Defense. It is about the movement in Louisiana where a group of community leaders formed a self-defense group. The Klan activity in the area was supposedly even stronger than in other areas of the South, and these armed Deacons, mostly World War II and Korean vets, protected civil rights activists, who were often their own children. The only "outside" organizers were two white guys from the north, which leaves the impression that the black community could not have carried out its activities w/o them. But the film is very effective in portraying the role that the threat of violence played both for advocates of self-defense (who I believe rarely ever resorted to violence, esp compared to white attacks) and advocates of nonviolence. At the very least, the movie demonstrates the extraordinary restraint that was required to maintain a philosophy of nonviolence in the face of such extensive provocation. It also provides a very sympathetic portrayal of those who chose to advocate self-defense (which I don't think is the same thing as violence, the way that word is understood), which some of you have pointed out was more prominent, even in the early civil rights movement, than most accounts portray. I am curious if anyone else has seen this film, and has other comments. Thanks, Kristine Boeke Ph.D Candidate University of Notre Dame ----- Original Message ----- From: "Todd Moye" To: Sent: Tuesday, October 07, 2003 8:50 AM Subject: Re: Was Brown an important jump start? > Curtis Austin raises an interesting point. > My colleague Worth Long, a former SNCC staffer, uses the term "unviolent" > to describe the grass-roots movements he helped organize (mostly in Ark. > and Ala.). I think that's a useful term, in that it gets us past what may > be the false opposites of violence and non-violence in civil rights > movements. It also captures rather perfectly the dynamics of the movements > I have studied most closely, in the Mississippi Delta. There the > African-Americans were almost all sharecroppers, and if they wanted their > families to eat meat other than pork they had to hunt game. Every one of > them had a gun and knew how to use it. Whites shot into their homes not > infrequently, and there were very few instances of blacks shooting back. > This would lead some to conclude that blacks in the Delta were non-violent; > given the context, it leads me to conclude that they weren't suicidal. Had > the situation changed even a little bit, I can easily imagine a > large-scale, violent response to white provocation, at least in that corner > of the world. > If the movement there was "unviolent" (as I think it was), these folks who > had been organized by SCLC and SNCC agreed to give non-violence a chance, > but they also kept their guns close by. I suspect that whites would have > directed much, much more violence toward them had this not been the case. > > Todd Moye > National Park Service > > > > Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2003 10:36:28 -0500 > From: Curtis Austin > Subject: Re: Was Brown an important jump start? > > Another teaching moment we ought not miss is a discussion of the > violence/nonviolence paradigm. Did reliance on violence, i.e. > self-defense > suddenly pop up after Stokeley (Kwame) issued his call for Black Power, or > as Tim Tyson suggests, had it been there all along. Speaking of primary > sources on the topic, I live in Mississippi and have done numerous > interviews with movement activist and almost to the person they describe a > physical "armed camp" when it came to organizing in the Magnolia state. > Why > has this side of the story, with amazingly few exceptions, been left out of > the popular and scholarly histories of the movement. I think the students > we are responsible for educating need to know as much of the story as we > can > give them and to downplay the very thing that kept activists breathing > seems > to be defeating the purpose of teaching movement history. > > Just wondering. > CA > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Sat, 11 Oct 2003 18:46:46 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charles Payne Subject: Re Brown In-Reply-To: Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="=====================_241204984==_.ALT" --=====================_241204984==_.ALT Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"; format=flowed Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Like Derek Catsam, I tend to present Brown as the culmination of decades of= =20 work . Students tend to see historical movement in terms of big. flashy=20 events. I want to make the point that sheer persistence matters. By=20 1930, Charles Houston and the NAACP braintrust had decided to get Plessy=20 and they systematically went at it. I also think it=92s useful to include= =20 something about what Houston did at Howard Law to make it a tool of=20 struggle. I need students to have some clear examples of middle-class=20 activism to balance the examples of middle-class indifference to the=20 movement that they will be encountering later in the course. All of this= =20 can be gotten from Kulger=92s Simple Justice but Mcneil=92s book is useful= =20 background: McNeil, Genna Rae. Groundwork : Charles Hamilton Houston and the struggle=20 for civil rights / Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983. It=92s important to capture the grassroots side of this too, partly so= that=20 students understand clearly that while the lawyers get all the=20 credit, some ordinary folk had their lives destroyed in order to make=20 Brown possible. The first chapter of Kluger, on Clarendon County, SC, is= =20 just wonderful. In fact, I love the first paragraph of that chapter=20 because it paints such a vivid picture of what it cost J.A.Delaine to lead= =20 the struggle there. The more clearly students understand the cost of=20 change, the more questions they can raise about how American institutions=20 function in fact. (That chapter also gives additional examples of the willingness of rural=20 people to defend themselves.) As to Klarman=92s article, I have not seen a reasonable critique of it and I= =20 find his evidence pretty persausive. It would be wonderful if someone did= =20 pull together whatever evidence there is for the thesis that Brown=20 stimulated later activism but what=92s available right now seems pretty=20 thin. I actually think the more important decision was Smith v.=20 Allwright, the 1944 decision outlawing the white primary. From the turn of= =20 the century to the eve of World War II, the percentage of Southern Blacks=20 registered to vote never rose above 5%. In 1947, it jumped to 12% , by=20 1950 to 20%. This is clearly the break with political exclusion and=20 the changes seem directly attributable to the South-wide voter=20 registration drives that followed Smith and it is possible to draw very=20 direct links between those efforts and later ones. (And Black veterans=20 were heavily involved , as some others have pointed out.) Reactions to Brown among blacks ran the spectrum. A great many people=20 worried about the job loss for Black teachers and principals =96 with=20 reason, as it turned out. Immediately after the decision, a New York=20 Times reporter was clearly surprised at the lack of enthusiasm in the=20 Black neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. the day after the opinion was=20 delivered. He entitled his story =93Capital=92s Negroes Slow in=20 Reacting.=94 According to Richard Kluger, that wasn=92t unusual. The mood= in=20 many Black communities was muted and wary. One Black columnist said of=20 Memphis that AThere was no general >hallelujah=3D >tis done=3D hullabaloo on= =20 Beale Street over the Supreme Court=3Ds admission that segregation in the=20 public schools is wrong. Beale Streeters are sorta skeptical about giving= =20 out with cheers yet.@ (New York Times, May 18, 1954, p. 18.; Kluger, Simple= =20 Justice, 709. ) My guess is that a great many Black people were struggling= =20 with too many things to see deliverance in Brown. CP This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --=====================_241204984==_.ALT Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable



Like Derek Catsam, I tend to present Brown as the culmination of decades of work .  Students tend to see historical movement in terms of big. flashy events.   I want to make the point that sheer persistence matters.   By 1930, Charles Houston and the NAACP braintrust had decided to get Plessy and they systematically went at it.    I also think it=92s useful to include something about what Houston did at Howard Law to make it a tool of struggle.    I need students to have some clear examples of middle-class activism to balance the examples of middle-class indifference to the movement that they will be encountering later in the course.   All of this can be gotten from Kulger=92s Simple Justice   but Mcneil=92s book is useful background:


McNeil, Genna Rae. Groundwork : Charles Hamilton Houston and the struggle for civil rights / Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

 It=92s important to capture the grassroots side of this too, partly so that students understand clearly that while the lawyers get all the credit,   some ordinary folk had their lives destroyed in order to make Brown possible.    The first chapter of Kluger, on Clarendon County, SC, is just wonderful.  In fact, I love the first paragraph of that chapter because it paints such a vivid picture of what it cost J.A.Delaine to lead the struggle there.   The more clearly students understand the cost of change, the more questions they can raise about how American institutions function in fact.
(That chapter also gives additional examples of the willingness of rural people to defend themselves.)

As to Klarman=92s article, I have not seen a reasonable critique of it and I find his evidence pretty persausive.   It would be wonderful if someone did pull together whatever evidence there is for the thesis that Brown stimulated later activism but what=92s available right now seems pretty thin.   I actually think the more important decision was
Smith v. Allwright, the 1944 decision outlawing the white primary.  From the turn of the century to the eve of World War II, the percentage of Southern Blacks registered  to vote never rose above 5%.   In 1947, it jumped to 12% , by 1950 to 20%.   This is clearly the break with political exclusion and the  changes seem directly attributable to the South-wide voter registration drives that followed Smith and it is possible to draw very direct links between those efforts and later ones.   (And Black veterans were heavily involved , as some others have pointed out.)

Reactions to Brown among blacks ran the spectrum.   A great many people worried about the job loss for Black teachers and principals   =96 with reason, as it turned out.   Immediately after the decision, 
New York Times reporter was clearly surprised at the lack of enthusiasm in the Black neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. the day after the opinion was delivered.  He entitled his story  =93Capital=92s Negroes Slow in Reacting.=94  According to Richard Kluger, that wasn=92t unusual. The mood in many Black communities was muted and wary.  One Black columnist said of Memphis that AThere was no general >hallelujah=3D
>tis done=3D hullabaloo on Beale Street over the Supreme Court=3Ds admission that segregation in the public schools is wrong.  Beale Streeters are sorta skeptical about giving out with cheers yet.@ (New York Times, May 18, 1954, p. 18.; Kluger, Simple Justice, 709. ) My guess is that a great many Black people were struggling with too many things to see deliverance in Brown.



CP





This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --=====================_241204984==_.ALT-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 13 Oct 2003 13:20:16 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Newby, Robert" Subject: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 T25lIG9mIHRoZSBpc3N1ZXMgdGhhdCBvZnRlbiBnZXRzIGlnbm9yZWQgcmVsYXRpdmUgdG8gVGhl IE1vdmVtZW50IGlzIHRoZSBpbXBhY3Qgb2YgdGhlIENvbGQgV2FyIG9uICJyYWNlIHJlbGF0aW9u cyIgaW4gdGhlIFUuUy4gIFVudGlsIGFib3V0IHR3byB5ZWFycyBhZ28gb25lIG9mIHRoZSBmZXcg cmVmZXJlbmNlcyB0byB0aGUgaG93IHRoZSBDb2xkIFdhciBpbXBhY3RlZCBkb21lc3RpYyAicmFj ZSIgcmVsYXRpb25zIHdhcyBhIHBhcmFncmFwaCBvciB0d28gaW4gWmlubidzIEEgUGVvcGxlIEhp c3RvcnkuLi4gIEl0IGlzIGltcG9ydGFudCB0byBub3RlIHRoYXQgQnJvd24sIGFzIHdlbGwgYXMg b3RoZXIgcG9saWN5IGNoYW5nZXMsIHdlcmUgcnVsaW5nIGNsYXNzIGNvbmNlcm5zIGFzIHRoZSBV LlMuIHdhcyBhdHRlbXB0aW5nIHRvIGhhdmUgVS5TLiBoZWdlbW9ueSB0YWtlIGhvbGQgd2l0aCBu ZXdseSBpbmRlcGVuZGVudCBuYXRpb25zIGluIEFmcmljYSBhbmQgQXNpYS4gIE5hdGlvbnMgb2Yg Y29sb3Igd2VyZSByZWx1Y3RhbnQgdG8gYWxpZ24gdGhlbXNlbHZlcyB3aXRoIGEgbmF0aW9uIHRo YXQgb3Blbmx5IHByYWN0aWNlZCB3aGl0ZSBzdXByZW1hY3kuICBUaGUgVVNTUiB3YXMgZWZmZWN0 aXZlbHkgdW5kZXJtaW5pbmcgVS5TLiBkZW1vY3JhY3kgYXMgYSBmcmF1ZC4gIENvbnNlcXVlbnRs eSwgQnJvd24gcHJvYmFibHkgaGFkIG1vcmUgdG8gZG8gd2l0aCBjYXBpdGFsaXN0IGNsYXNzIGNv bWJhdHRpbmcgZ2xvYmFsIHNvY2lhbGlzbSBhbmQgbmF0aW9uYWwgc2VsZi1kZXRlcm1pbmF0aW9u IGFyb3VuZCB0aGUgd29ybGQgdGhhbiB3aXRoIGEgbmV3IHNlbnNlIG9mIGp1c3RpY2Ugb24gdGhl IHBhcnQgb2YgdGhlIEFtZXJpY2FuIGNpdGl6ZW5yeSB2aXMtYS12aXMgQWZyaWNhbiBBbWVyaWNh bnMuICBDbGVhcmx5LCBkdXJpbmcgdGhpcyBwZXJpb2QgdGhlIG1vdmVtZW50IHdhcyBhbiBlbWJh cnJhc3NtZW50IHRvIHRoZSBVLlMuICBTbywgdGhlIGNoYW5nZXMgaGFkIG1vcmUgdG8gZG8gd2l0 aCBleHBhbmRpbmcgVS5TLiBoZWdlbW9ueSB0aGFuIHdpdGgganVzdGljZS4gIEZvcnR1bmF0ZWx5 LCBNYXJ5IER1ZHppYWsncyBib29rLCB3aGljaCBjYW1lIG91dCBhYm91dCB0d28geWVhcnMgYWdv LCBpcyBhbiBleGNlbGxlbnQgcmVzb3VyY2UgZm9yIHRoaXMgZG9jdW1lbnRhdGlvbi4NCiANClJv YmVydCBOZXdieQ0KUHJvZmVzc29yDQpDZW50cmFsIE1pY2hpZ2FuIFVuaXZlcnNpdHkNCk10LiBQ bGVhc2FudCwgTUkgNDg4NTkNCg== ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 13 Oct 2003 21:01:58 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Susan Strickland Subject: Re: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... In-Reply-To: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Professor Newby, Please allow me to be so bold as to take the presumption of replying to your interesting take on "race relations". In my not so humble opinion, the whole problem with class-based models of history, and in this regard Zinn, et.al, do favor the more provocative tack, is that they regard history as huge waves of orchestrated events guided by white men in business suits with some sort of secret master plan. There is no way one can read Constance Curry's book, Silver Rights, or the numerous biographies of female civil rights leaders (black and white)and not come away with the overwhelming sense that individual acts of bravery prodded less than enthusiastic state and local governments to acknowledge what all could see: human rights were being violated. Did political leaders have an agenda? Yes - state and local leaders like to see themselves re-elected to the point where they will recast themselves in the public's fleeting image of hero long enough to coax voters to the ballot box. Such are the less than mysterious workings of democracy. What makes a movement like the Civil Rights Movement a subject of ongoing analysis is our very inability to know exactly what motivated each player to reach beyond themselves to strive toward a more perfect view of race relations, voting rights, and equal opportunity for all. I think the answer lies, in part, in an untapped area of research at the center of what we call a "grass roots" movement: the response of women living in communities large and small to the call for change: some positive and some negative. More needs to be learned about the thousand pairs of shoes, (some with high heels) that marched their way toward change in places famous and not so famous. Who were these women, what were their methods, and exactly how much of what has been attributed to male politicians has their hand print on it? For instance, I will venture my opinion that it was women's groups, working in conjunction with and often pushing business leaders, who ultimately helped end massive resistance in Virginia. Did a more "democratic" international image play well in a cold war dance of spin control? Of course. But, the politics of the cold war are separate from the reality of community based change. Zinn's analysis is though provoking, but not at the heart of where true research remains to be done. Sincerely, Susan Cary Strickland Friendly High School Fort Washington, MD -----Original Message----- From: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement [mailto:CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU] On Behalf Of Newby, Robert Sent: Monday, October 13, 2003 1:20 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... One of the issues that often gets ignored relative to The Movement is the impact of the Cold War on "race relations" in the U.S. Until about two years ago one of the few references to the how the Cold War impacted domestic "race" relations was a paragraph or two in Zinn's A People History... It is important to note that Brown, as well as other policy changes, were ruling class concerns as the U.S. was attempting to have U.S. hegemony take hold with newly independent nations in Africa and Asia. Nations of color were reluctant to align themselves with a nation that openly practiced white supremacy. The USSR was effectively undermining U.S. democracy as a fraud. Consequently, Brown probably had more to do with capitalist class combatting global socialism and national self-determination around the world than with a new sense of justice on the part of the American citizenry vis-a-vis African Americans. Clearly, during this period the movement was an embarrassment to the U.S. So, the changes had more to do with expanding U.S. hegemony than with justice. Fortunately, Mary Dudziak's book, which came out about two years ago, is an excellent resource for this documentation. Robert Newby Professor Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 14 Oct 2003 05:03:18 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Heather Lewis Subject: Re: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... In-Reply-To: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="0-2146758003-1066132998=:79516" --0-2146758003-1066132998=:79516 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Robert Newby suggests that until two years ago Zinn's, A People's History, contained one of the few references to the Cold War and domestic race relations. Penny Von Eschen's, Race Against Empire came out in 1997 and Brenda Galyle Plummer's, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935-1960 in 1996. Both address the international context for domestic "race" relations. More recently Martha Biondi's, To Stand and Fight: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York City (2003) addresses anticommunism and Civil Rights. Heather Lewis "Newby, Robert" wrote: One of the issues that often gets ignored relative to The Movement is the impact of the Cold War on "race relations" in the U.S. Until about two years ago one of the few references to the how the Cold War impacted domestic "race" relations was a paragraph or two in Zinn's A People History... It is important to note that Brown, as well as other policy changes, were ruling class concerns as the U.S. was attempting to have U.S. hegemony take hold with newly independent nations in Africa and Asia. Nations of color were reluctant to align themselves with a nation that openly practiced white supremacy. The USSR was effectively undermining U.S. democracy as a fraud. Consequently, Brown probably had more to do with capitalist class combatting global socialism and national self-determination around the world than with a new sense of justice on the part of the American citizenry vis-a-vis African Americans. Clearly, during this period the movement was an embarrassment to the U.S. So, the changes had more to do with expanding U.S. hegemony than with justice. Fortunately, Mary Dudziak's book, which came out about two years ago, is an excellent resource for this documentation. Robert Newby Professor Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 --------------------------------- Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-2146758003-1066132998=:79516 Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii
Robert Newby suggests that until two years ago Zinn's, A People's History, contained one of the few references to the Cold War and domestic race relations.   Penny Von Eschen's, Race Against Empire came out in 1997 and Brenda Galyle Plummer's, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935-1960 in 1996. Both address the international context for domestic "race" relations. More recently Martha Biondi's, To Stand and Fight: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York City (2003) addresses anticommunism and Civil Rights.  
 
Heather Lewis

"Newby, Robert" <newby1rg@CMICH.EDU> wrote:
One of the issues that often gets ignored relative to The Movement is the impact of the Cold War on "race relations" in the U.S. Until about two years ago one of the few references to the how the Cold War impacted domestic "race" relations was a paragraph or two in Zinn's A People History... It is important to note that Brown, as well as other policy changes, were ruling class concerns as the U.S. was attempting to have U.S. hegemony take hold with newly independent nations in Africa and Asia. Nations of color were reluctant to align themselves with a nation that openly practiced white supremacy. The USSR was effectively undermining U.S. democracy as a fraud. Consequently, Brown probably had more to do with capitalist class combatting global socialism and national self-determination around the world than with a new sense of justice on the part of the American citizenry vis-a-vis African Americans. Clearly, during this period the movement was an embarrassment to the U.S. So, the changes had more to do with expanding U.S. hegemony than with justice. Fortunately, Mary Dudziak's book, which came out about two years ago, is an excellent resource for this documentation.

Robert Newby
Professor
Central Michigan University
Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859


Do you Yahoo!?
The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-2146758003-1066132998=:79516-- ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 14 Oct 2003 07:46:02 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Roisman, Florence W" Subject: Re: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable See the new book, Eyes Off the Prize, which discusses this. =20 Florence Wagman Roisman Michael McCormick Professor of Law=20 Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis 530 West New York Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 PHONE: 317 274 4479 FAX: 317 278 3326 EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu =20 -----Original Message----- From: Newby, Robert [mailto:newby1rg@CMICH.EDU]=20 Sent: Monday, October 13, 2003 12:20 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... One of the issues that often gets ignored relative to The Movement is the impact of the Cold War on "race relations" in the U.S. Until about two years ago one of the few references to the how the Cold War impacted domestic "race" relations was a paragraph or two in Zinn's A People History... It is important to note that Brown, as well as other policy changes, were ruling class concerns as the U.S. was attempting to have U.S. hegemony take hold with newly independent nations in Africa and Asia. Nations of color were reluctant to align themselves with a nation that openly practiced white supremacy. The USSR was effectively undermining U.S. democracy as a fraud. Consequently, Brown probably had more to do with capitalist class combatting global socialism and national self-determination around the world than with a new sense of justice on the part of the American citizenry vis-a-vis African Americans. Clearly, during this period the movement was an embarrassment to the U.S. So, the changes had more to do with expanding U.S. hegemony than with justice. Fortunately, Mary Dudziak's book, which came out about two years ago, is an excellent resource for this documentation. =20 Robert Newby Professor Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 14 Oct 2003 11:02:57 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Gore, Emily" Subject: Re: Southern Bibliographies.... MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain As a graduate teaching assistant in Women's Studies at the University of Alabama several years ago, I took advantage of the Civil Rights Museum in Birmingham. The lectures they brought in were wonderful, including Lani Guinier, Angela Davis and Dorothy Cotton. I agree with the sentiment about place that has been suggested. Being in the physical space where history took place and having a museum or monument in that place to help you get a grasp of what happened, is something that you should experience in order to have a greater understanding of the struggles that took place in that area (unless of course, you were a participant). I encourage everyone who can to visit the Civil Rights Museum in Birmingham. Emily Gore Information Technology Librarian Joyner Library East Carolina University Greenville, NC 27858-4353 GoreE@mail.ecu.edu 252.328.4985 -----Original Message----- From: Tara White [mailto:twhite@PRESERVEALA.ORG] Sent: Thursday, October 09, 2003 6:09 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re: Southern Bibliographies.... As a historian and museum professional, I am interested in further comments about the museums. I am also interested in how people who research, teach, and write about the civil rights movement see the recent number of museums and sites that interpret various aspects of the movement. Tara White Assistant Site Director, Alabama State Capitol Site Director, Montgomery Greyhound Bus Station Alabama Historical Commission 468 South Perry Street Montgomery, Alabama 36130 334-242-3188 -----Original Message----- From: Newby, Robert [mailto:newby1rg@CMICH.EDU] Sent: Thursday, October 09, 2003 1:25 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Southern Bibliographies.... I had an interesting experience this summer. On a small curriculum development grant grant I was able to visit some significant civil rights sites in Mississippi and Alabama. Next spring I will do a trek to Greensboro and possibly one other place before the funds are exhausted. The purpose of this post, however, is to suggest that I was missing a lot of analyses about the South and the Movement that I would not have been aware of without physically being there. Specifically, there are a number of excellent books about the Movement and the region that are not widely publicized because the authors are "local" as opposed to having national exposure. Hanging out in Barnes and Noble, as well as a few local bookstores, there are some excellent works about the region and the period that I had never seen advertised. In fact, I ended up using much of the funds for the grant on books as opposed to travel expenses. I also visited a number of museums along the way. I found the museum in Jackson in the Old Capitol building to have some excellent exhibits. Likewise, also in Jackson, and though it is in need of more funds and development, the African American museum in the old Smith-Robertson school building was informative, as well. The National Voting Rights Museum and Institute captures the Selma struggle. The best funded and most elaborate was the Civil Rights Museum in Birmingham. A similar case could be made for the Rosa Parks Museum and Library in Montgomery. Mind-boggling was Cottonlandia in Greenwood, Ms. Like the museum in the Old Capitol in Jackson, this museum covers a time period from America's native population on the land in Mississippi to present but without a SINGLE mention of slavery!!! In fact, there may have been only one or two blacks pictured in the whole museum. It is possible that there is some denial going on in Greenwood? Robert Newby Professor Sociology Central Michigan University Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 14 Oct 2003 15:58:12 -0600 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jill Gill Subject: Southern black perspectives on integration today Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Disposition: inline Last week, Curtis Austin wrote: "To the person, and I obviously have not interviewed everyone in Mississipp= i who lived through the movement, they say "Inagrayshon" was the "wust = thang dat coulda eva hapn to black folk." Of course they have living = history and 20/20 hindsight to help them arrive at this conclusion and I = imagine the children in Birmingham came to the same conclusion via real = world experiences." Fascinating! Please share more. I'm teaching a course on the CRM in = Boise, Idaho where it is difficult for my students and I to get a grasp on = how black Americans today, who either lived through the CRM or are living = with the repercussions of it and its successes/failures, assess it, its = strategies and goals. You mentioned that blacks in Birmingham today are = probably responding to the fact that they still live largely segregated = and therefore simply want equality within a segregated environment. But = why do you think that the older ones see integration as the worst thing = that could happen to them. What are they saying to you off the record = that are the hindsight lessons to them? Please continue to enlighten us! Thank you, Jill Gill Boise State University This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 14 Oct 2003 18:25:39 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Susan C. Maynor" Subject: Help! MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0009_01C39280.91AB55E0" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0009_01C39280.91AB55E0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable I am so happy to be a part of this discussion. I teach US History to = 11th graders who have no grasp of the Civil Rights Movement. Would = someone please post a lesson that you have had success with on the Civil = Rights Movement? I would like to see how others teach this. I would appreciate any help anyone could give. Thanks for the great = discussions Susan Maynor Purnell Swett High School Pembroke, NC This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0009_01C39280.91AB55E0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
I am so happy to be a part of this=20 discussion.  I teach US History to 11th graders who have no grasp = of the=20 Civil Rights Movement.  Would someone please post a lesson that you = have=20 had success with on the Civil Rights Movement?  I would like to see = how=20 others teach this.
I would appreciate any help anyone = could=20 give.  Thanks for the great discussions
 
Susan Maynor
Purnell Swett High School
Pembroke, NC
 
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0009_01C39280.91AB55E0-- ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 14 Oct 2003 18:19:24 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Roisman, Florence W" Subject: Re: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----_=_NextPart_001_01C392A9.9AF17A6C" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------_=_NextPart_001_01C392A9.9AF17A6C Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable See also Mary Dudziak's Cold War Civil Rights. =20 =20 Florence Wagman Roisman Michael McCormick Professor of Law=20 Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis 530 West New York Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 PHONE: 317 274 4479 FAX: 317 278 3326 EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu =20 -----Original Message----- From: Heather Lewis [mailto:heatherbrittain@YAHOO.COM]=20 Sent: Tuesday, October 14, 2003 7:03 AM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... =20 Robert Newby suggests that until two years ago Zinn's, A People's History, contained one of the few references to the Cold War and domestic race relations. Penny Von Eschen's, Race Against Empire came out in 1997 and Brenda Galyle Plummer's, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935-1960 in 1996. Both address the international context for domestic "race" relations. More recently Martha Biondi's, To Stand and Fight: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Postwar New York City (2003) addresses anticommunism and Civil Rights. =20 =20 Heather Lewis "Newby, Robert" wrote: One of the issues that often gets ignored relative to The Movement is the impact of the Cold War on "race relations" in the U.S. Until about two years ago one of the few references to the how the Cold War impacted domestic "race" relations was a paragraph or two in Zinn's A People History... It is important to note that Brown, as well as other policy changes, were ruling class concerns as the U.S. was attempting to have U.S. hegemony take hold with newly independent nations in Africa and Asia. Nations of color were reluctant to align themselves with a nation that openly practiced white supremacy. The USSR was effectively undermining U.S. democracy as a fraud. Consequently, Brown probably had more to do with capitalist class combatting global socialism and national self-determination around the world than with a new sense of justice on the part of the American citizenry vis-a-! vis African Americans. Clearly, during this period the movement was an embarrassment to the U.S. So, the changes had more to do with expanding U.S. hegemony than with justice. Fortunately, Mary Dudziak's book, which came out about two years ago, is an excellent resource for this documentation. =09 Robert Newby Professor Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 _____ =20 Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------_=_NextPart_001_01C392A9.9AF17A6C Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

See also Mary Dudziak’s Cold War Civil Rights.

 

 

Florence Wagman = Roisman

Michael McCormick Professor of = Law 

Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis

530 West New York = Street

Indianapolis, Indiana = 46202-3225

PHONE: 317 274 = 4479

FAX: 317 278 = 3326

EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu

 

-----Original = Message-----
From: Heather Lewis [mailto:heatherbrittain@YAHOO.COM]
Sent: Tuesday, October = 14, 2003 7:03 AM
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU
Subject: Re: Brown, the = Cold War and the Movement....

 

Robert Newby suggests that until two years = ago Zinn's, A People's = History, contained one of the few references to the Cold War and domestic race = relations.   Penny Von Eschen's, Race Against = Empire came out in 1997 and Brenda Galyle Plummer's, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign = Affairs, 1935-1960 in 1996. Both address the international = context for domestic "race" relations. More recently Martha Biondi's, = To Stand and Fight: The Struggle for Civil = Rights in Postwar New York City (2003) addresses = anticommunism and Civil Rights.  

 

Heather Lewis

"Newby, Robert" <newby1rg@CMICH.EDU> = wrote:

One of the issues that often gets ignored = relative to The Movement is the impact of the Cold War on "race relations" = in the U.S. Until about two years ago one of the few references to the how the = Cold War impacted domestic "race" relations was a paragraph or two = in Zinn's A People History... It is important to note that Brown, as well = as other policy changes, were ruling class concerns as the U.S. was attempting to = have U.S. hegemony take hold with newly independent nations in Africa and = Asia. Nations of color were reluctant to align themselves with a nation that = openly practiced white supremacy. The USSR was effectively undermining U.S. = democracy as a fraud. Consequently, Brown probably had more to do with capitalist = class combatting global socialism and national self-determination around the = world than with a new sense of justice on the part of the American citizenry = vis-a-! vis African Americans. Clearly, during this period the movement was an embarrassment to the U.S. So, the changes had more to do with expanding = U.S. hegemony than with justice. Fortunately, Mary Dudziak's book, which came = out about two years ago, is an excellent resource for this = documentation.

Robert Newby
Professor
Central Michigan University
Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859


Do you Yahoo!?
The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is = sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.

=00 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------_=_NextPart_001_01C392A9.9AF17A6C-- ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 14 Oct 2003 23:52:14 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Newby, Robert" Subject: Re: Brown, the Cold War and the Movement.... 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This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------_=_NextPart_001_01C39315.3412DD34 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable In a earlier posting, I referred to a new book, Eyes Off the Prize, but didn't provide further information about it as I didn't have the book with me. Here's the full citation: Carol Anderson, Eyes Off the Prize: The United Nations and the African American Sturggle for Human Rights, 1944-1955 (Cambridge U. Press 2003). I've read only about 50 pages so far, but find it interesting, well-supported, and iconoclastic. (When is the last time anyone read anything critical of Eleanor Roosevelt?) =20 =20 Florence Wagman Roisman Michael McCormick Professor of Law=20 Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis 530 West New York Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-3225 PHONE: 317 274 4479 FAX: 317 278 3326 EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu =20 -----Original Message----- From: Charles Payne [mailto:cmpayne@DUKE.EDU]=20 Sent: Saturday, October 11, 2003 5:47 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re Brown =20 Like Derek Catsam, I tend to present Brown as the culmination of decades of work . Students tend to see historical movement in terms of big. flashy events. I want to make the point that sheer persistence matters. By 1930, Charles Houston and the NAACP braintrust had decided to get Plessy and they systematically went at it. I also think it's useful to include something about what Houston did at Howard Law to make it a tool of struggle. I need students to have some clear examples of middle-class activism to balance the examples of middle-class indifference to the movement that they will be encountering later in the course. All of this can be gotten from Kulger's Simple Justice but Mcneil's book is useful background: McNeil, Genna Rae. Groundwork : Charles Hamilton Houston and the struggle for civil rights / Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.=20 It's important to capture the grassroots side of this too, partly so that students understand clearly that while the lawyers get all the credit, some ordinary folk had their lives destroyed in order to make Brown possible. The first chapter of Kluger, on Clarendon County, SC, is just wonderful. In fact, I love the first paragraph of that chapter because it paints such a vivid picture of what it cost J.A.Delaine to lead the struggle there. The more clearly students understand the cost of change, the more questions they can raise about how American institutions function in fact. (That chapter also gives additional examples of the willingness of rural people to defend themselves.)=20 As to Klarman's article, I have not seen a reasonable critique of it and I find his evidence pretty persausive. It would be wonderful if someone did pull together whatever evidence there is for the thesis that Brown stimulated later activism but what's available right now seems pretty thin. I actually think the more important decision was Smith v. Allwright, the 1944 decision outlawing the white primary. From the turn of the century to the eve of World War II, the percentage of Southern Blacks registered to vote never rose above 5%. In 1947, it jumped to 12% , by 1950 to 20%. This is clearly the break with political exclusion and the changes seem directly attributable to the South-wide voter registration drives that followed Smith and it is possible to draw very direct links between those efforts and later ones. (And Black veterans were heavily involved , as some others have pointed out.) Reactions to Brown among blacks ran the spectrum. A great many people worried about the job loss for Black teachers and principals - with reason, as it turned out. Immediately after the decision, a New York Times reporter was clearly surprised at the lack of enthusiasm in the Black neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. the day after the opinion was delivered. He entitled his story "Capital's Negroes Slow in Reacting." According to Richard Kluger, that wasn't unusual. The mood in many Black communities was muted and wary. One Black columnist said of Memphis that AThere was no general >hallelujah=3D >tis done=3D hullabaloo on = Beale Street over the Supreme Court=3Ds admission that segregation in the = public schools is wrong. Beale Streeters are sorta skeptical about giving out with cheers yet.@ (New York Times, May 18, 1954, p. 18.; Kluger, Simple Justice, 709. ) My guess is that a great many Black people were struggling with too many things to see deliverance in Brown. CP This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------_=_NextPart_001_01C39315.3412DD34 Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

In = a earlier posting, I referred to a new book, Eyes Off the Prize, but = didn’t provide further information about it as I didn’t have the book = with me.  Here’s the full citation: Carol Anderson, Eyes Off the Prize: The = United Nations and the African American Sturggle for Human Rights, 1944-1955 (Cambridge U. Press 2003).  I’ve read only about 50 pages so = far, but find it interesting, well-supported, and iconoclastic.  (When is = the last time anyone read anything critical of Eleanor Roosevelt?)

 

 

Florence Wagman = Roisman

Michael McCormick Professor of = Law 

Indiana University School of Law - = Indianapolis

530 West New York = Street

Indianapolis, Indiana = 46202-3225

PHONE: 317 274 = 4479

FAX: 317 278 = 3326

EMAIL: froisman@iupui.edu

 

-----Original = Message-----
From: Charles Payne [mailto:cmpayne@DUKE.EDU]
Sent: Saturday, October = 11, 2003 5:47 PM
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU
Subject: Re = Brown

 





Like Derek Catsam, I tend to present Brown as the culmination of decades = of work .  Students tend to see historical movement in terms of big. = flashy events.   I want to make the point that sheer persistence = matters.   By 1930, Charles Houston and the NAACP braintrust had decided to get = Plessy and they systematically went at it.    I also think = it’s useful to include something about what Houston did at Howard Law to make = it a tool of struggle.    I need students to have some clear = examples of middle-class activism to balance the examples of middle-class = indifference to the movement that they will be encountering later in the = course.   All of this can be gotten from Kulger’s Simple Justice   but Mcneil’s book is useful = background:


McNeil, Genna Rae. Groundwork : Charles Hamilton Houston and the = struggle for civil rights / Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983. =

 It’s important to capture the grassroots side of this too, = partly so that students understand clearly that while the lawyers get all the credit,   some ordinary folk had their lives destroyed in = order to make Brown possible.    The first chapter of Kluger, on Clarendon County, SC, is just wonderful.  In fact, I love the first paragraph of that chapter because it paints such a vivid picture of what = it cost J.A.Delaine to lead the struggle there.   The more = clearly students understand the cost of change, the more questions they can = raise about how American institutions function in fact.
(That chapter also gives additional examples of the willingness of rural = people to defend themselves.)

As to Klarman’s article, I have not seen a reasonable critique of = it and I find his evidence pretty persausive.   It would be wonderful = if someone did pull together whatever evidence there is for the thesis that = Brown stimulated later activism but what’s available right now seems = pretty thin.   I actually think the more important decision was =
Smith v. Allwright, the 1944 decision = outlawing the white primary.  From the turn of the century to the eve of World = War II, the percentage of Southern Blacks registered  to vote never rose = above 5%.   In 1947, it jumped to 12% , by 1950 to 20%.   = This is clearly the break with political exclusion and the  changes seem = directly attributable to the South-wide voter registration drives that followed = Smith and it is possible to draw = very direct links between those efforts and later ones.   (And Black veterans were heavily involved , = as some others have pointed out.)

Reactions to Brown among blacks ran the spectrum.   A great = many people worried about the job loss for Black teachers and = principals   – with reason, as it turned out.   Immediately after the decision, 
New York Times reporter was clearly surprised at the lack of = enthusiasm in the Black neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. the day after the opinion = was delivered.  He entitled his story  “Capital’s = Negroes Slow in Reacting.”  According to Richard Kluger, that = wasn’t unusual. The mood in many Black communities was muted and wary.  = One Black columnist said of Memphis that AThere was no general = >hallelujah=3D<= font size=3D4 face=3DArial>
>tis = done=3D hullabaloo on Beale Street over the Supreme Court=3Ds admission that = segregation in the public schools is wrong.  Beale Streeters are sorta skeptical about = giving out with cheers yet.@ (New York = Times, May 18, 1954, p. 18.; Kluger, Simple Justice, 709. ) = My guess is that a great many Black people were struggling with too many things = to see deliverance in Brown.



CP




This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History.=00 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------_=_NextPart_001_01C39315.3412DD34-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 11:00:52 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charity Pitton Subject: Teaching Ideas MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0005_01C3930B.997104B0" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0005_01C3930B.997104B0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit This is something I do about the middle of my CRM time, which means about four days into it. My first time around with HS American History, I had a discussion in which the students were to say with whom they agreed: MKL, that we should be integrated, or Malcolm X, that we should be separate but equal. (This was the time that every student in Birmingham agreed with Malcolm X, and every other student, regardless of race, agreed with MLK.) So I’ve significantly changed the discussion. For one thing, MLK vs. Malcolm X just has too much of a right/wrong answer feel. (It took a great deal of courage on the part of my students from Birmingham to openly agree with Malcolm X.) But it also does little to lead students to the idea of personal responsibility and leadership. Now, they discuss whether they agree with Malcolm X’s earlier position of separate but equal, or his later position that was more pro-integration. I spend much less time trying to convince them that integration is the better option, and instead affirm both those who speak of separateness being the more practical option, and also those who speak of integration being the ideal model, and that we should settle for nothing less than ideal. (Those who choose separateness generally agree that integration is what “ought” to happen, but they say it’s impossible so why bother.) Once we’ve had a chance to discuss those options, we discuss what changed his mind. (There’s a section in his autobiography on his trip to Mecca.) We guide the discussion to the realization that it was seeing examples of different races joining in peace that opened his views to the possibilities of integration, and then discuss how each student has the individual responsibility to demonstrate that people of disparate ethnic groups can come together in peace. (And generally, my students in Birmingham agree that they do have that individual responsibility, though they don’t think society as a whole should try for integration.) This also opens up the point that the CRM is not something that is over and done with any more than it was something that started in the 50’s (the view of most of my Midwesterners). Of course, my whole interpretation of Malcolm X’s ideas may be too simplistic or completely wrong – somebody please tell me if that’s the case. While I leave more time in case the class seems to need it, this discussion generally takes about 30 minutes of class time. Charity Pitton This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0005_01C3930B.997104B0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

This is something I do about the middle of my CRM time, which = means about four days into it.

 

My first time around with HS American History, I had a discussion = in which the students were to say with whom they agreed: MKL, that we = should be integrated, or Malcolm X, that we should be separate but equal. (This = was the time that every student in Birmingham agreed with Malcolm X, and every = other student, regardless of race, agreed with = MLK.)

 

So I’ve significantly changed the discussion. For one = thing, MLK vs. Malcolm X just has too much of a right/wrong answer feel. (It took a = great deal of courage on the part of my students from Birmingham to openly agree = with Malcolm X.) But it also does little to lead students to the idea of = personal responsibility and leadership. Now, they discuss whether they agree with Malcolm X’s earlier position of separate but equal, or his later = position that was more pro-integration. I spend much less time trying to convince them = that integration is the better option, and instead affirm both those who = speak of separateness being the more practical option, and also those who speak = of integration being the ideal model, and that we should settle for nothing = less than ideal. (Those who choose separateness generally agree that = integration is what “ought” to happen, but they say it’s impossible = so why bother.)

 

Once we’ve had a chance to discuss those options, we = discuss what changed his mind. (There’s a section in his autobiography on his = trip to Mecca.) We guide the discussion to the realization that it was seeing examples = of different races joining in peace that opened his views to the = possibilities of integration, and then discuss how each student has the individual responsibility to demonstrate that people of disparate ethnic groups can = come together in peace. (And generally, my students in Birmingham agree that = they do have that individual responsibility, though they don’t think = society as a whole should try for integration.) This also opens up the point that the CRM = is not something that is over and done with any more than it was something that started in the 50’s (the view of most of my = Midwesterners).

 

Of course, my whole interpretation of Malcolm X’s ideas may = be too simplistic or completely wrong – somebody please tell me if = that’s the case.

 

While I leave more time in case the class seems to need it, this discussion generally takes about 30 minutes of class = time.

 

Charity Pitton        = ;            =  

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0005_01C3930B.997104B0-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 09:57:26 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Glenn Mitoma Subject: query re: Carson's In Struggle MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii; format=flowed Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Greetings, First, I want to express my gratitude for the thoughtful contributions thus far. I am a Ph.D. candidate in Cultural Studies currently knee-deep in my first semester of university teaching and have already found much that will be of use to me in the coming months. At the risk of shamelessly exploiting this forum for my own benefit, I am wondering if any of the more experienced voices can offer their perspective on teaching Claybourne Carson's classic In Stuggle. It is the main text I am using for a four week unit on the CRM that is part of an introductory survey course in American Studies. In choosing to use the SNCC book as an entry into the CRM more broadly, I was hoping that there might be some identification between the college student activists in SNCC and my students. Beyond this issue, SNCC as an organization seems to have confronted and negotiated (both successfully and unsuccessfully) many of the issues discussed on this list - grassroots vs. national movement, community organizing vs. power politics, charismatic leadership vs. local footsoldiers, gender issues, international issues, etc. Have others used Carson's book in this manner and was it successful? In modest contribution to some of the other threads on the list: Another interesting treatment of international issues and the CRM is Thomas Borstelmann, "The Cold War and the Color Line" which offers an excellent comparative treatment of the Southern US and South Africa. With regard to women in the movement, Septima Clark - a figure at least as signficant as Baker or Hamer - has, in my opinion, been scandalously neglected by scholars. Cynthia Stokes Brown's "Ready From Within" offers an interesting narrative, but certainly not the level of analysis that Clark's contibution deserves. If others can offer other sources or even current work on Clark, I'd be interested to hear about it. Also Sara Evans' "Personal Politics" is quite successful in connecting women's work in the CRM to the later emergence of the Women's Movement. Regards, Glenn Mitoma This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 14:38:20 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kay Rout Subject: Re: High School kids and CRM In-Reply-To: <000c01c392a2$18ef5080$6101a8c0@launchmodem.com> Mime-version: 1.0 Content-type: multipart/alternative; boundary="B_3149073502_9563044" > This message is in MIME format. Since your mail reader does not understand this format, some or all of this message may not be legible. --B_3149073502_9563044 Content-type: text/plain; charset="ISO-8859-1" Content-transfer-encoding: quoted-printable > I am so happy to be a part of this discussion. I teach US History to 11t= h > graders who have no grasp of the Civil Rights Movement. Would someone pl= ease > post a lesson that you have had success with on the Civil Rights Movement= ? I > would like to see how others teach this. > I would appreciate any help anyone could give. Thanks for the great > discussions > =20 > Susan Maynor > Purnell Swett High School > Pembroke, NC > =20 > Susan: I always begin by pointing out how Brown v. Board of Ed reversed P= lessy > v. Ferguson, which of course has to be explained first. The, although no= t > everyone in this forum agrees, I credit that with giving hope to blacks a= nd > awakening to whites; thus you can seque into the Montgomery bus boycott. = I > don=B9t know how sensitive your kids are, but when I teach the 60=B9s in coll= ege I > never omit the violence of the right wing resistance as contrasted with t= he > nonviolence of King and others. Thus, I=B9d cover the killing of Emmett Ti= ll, > very close to your students=B9 age (14) in the summer right before the boyc= ott. > =20 > Students would be interested at the violence generated, too, over school > integration. Show them Little Rock, 1957; do Autherine Lucy and James > Meredith. To me, Kennedy=B9s =B3Ask not...=B2 line inspired whites to get invo= lved. > It was 4 months after that inaugural speech that white kids participated = in > the freedom rides. It was also after a major speech of his on civil righ= ts on > June 11, 1963 that Medgar Evers was assassinated; it was after midnight, = so it > was actually June 12, but it was the same night, and in reaction to the > speech. And some, like one southern woman who told me after JFK=B9s > assassination. =B3I=B9m going to do everything I can now for civil rights=B2 (I > didn=B9t believe her), assumed that he was killed over the civil rights is= sue, > and not Vietnam, as Oliver Stone=B9s film and many authors assume. >=20 > So key with high school and college, to me is=8B stress on role of youth (b= ook, > The Children, D. Halberstam was it?) and emphasis on schools and the mor= al > high ground of nonviolence v. the guaranteed murderous rage of the right. > How=B9s that? =20 >=20 > Oh, and one of the most successful films I have ever used in college is O= liver > Stone=B9s documentary, Assassinated: The Last Days of Kennedy and King. R= obert > Kennedy, that is=8B April and June, 1968. > Kay This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --B_3149073502_9563044 Content-type: text/html; charset="ISO-8859-1" Content-transfer-encoding: quoted-printable Re: High School kids and CRM
I am so happy to be a part of= this discussion.  I teach US History to 11th graders who have no grasp= of the Civil Rights Movement.  Would someone please post a lesson that= you have had success with on the Civil Rights Movement?  I would like = to see how others teach this.
I would appreciate any help anyone could give.  Thanks for the great d= iscussions

Susan Maynor
Purnell Swett High School
Pembroke, NC

Susan: I always begin by pointing out how Brown v. Board of Ed reversed Ple= ssy v. Ferguson, which of course has to be explained first.  The, altho= ugh not everyone in this forum agrees, I credit that with giving hope to bla= cks and awakening to whites; thus you can seque into the Montgomery bus boyc= ott.  I don’t know how sensitive your kids are, but when I teach = the 60’s in college I never omit the violence of the right wing resist= ance as contrasted with the nonviolence of King and others.  Thus, I= 217;d cover the killing of Emmett Till, very close to your students’ a= ge (14) in the summer right before the boycott.
 
Students would be interested at the violence generated, too, over school in= tegration.  Show them Little Rock, 1957; do Autherine Lucy and James Me= redith.  To me, Kennedy’s “Ask not...” line inspired = whites to get involved.  It was 4 months after that inaugural speech th= at white kids participated in the freedom rides.  It was also after a m= ajor speech of his on civil rights on June 11, 1963 that Medgar Evers was as= sassinated; it was after midnight, so it was actually June 12, but it was th= e same night, and in reaction to the speech.  And some, like one southe= rn woman who told me after JFK’s assassination. “I’m going= to do everything I can now for civil rights” (I didn’t believe = her),  assumed that he was killed over the civil rights issue, and not = Vietnam, as Oliver Stone’s film and many authors assume.  

So key with high school and college, to me is— stress on role of yout= h (book, The Children, D. Halberstam was it?)  and emphasis on schools = and the moral  high ground of nonviolence v. the guaranteed murderous r= age of the right.  How’s that?  

Oh, and one of the most successful films I have ever used in college is Oli= ver Stone’s documentary,  Assassinated: The Last Days of Kennedy = and King.  Robert Kennedy, that is— April and June, 1968.
Kay
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --B_3149073502_9563044-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 15:30:59 EDT Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jan Fyffe Subject: Re: Help! MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="part1_1cc.12812675.2cbefa73_boundary" --part1_1cc.12812675.2cbefa73_boundary Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="1cc.12812675_alt_bound" --1cc.12812675_alt_bound Content-Type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Reply to Susan in NC: I teach some info about the CRM in conjunction with English courses at the HS level. I usually start off with an excerpt found in Southern Anthology of Short Stories from Anne Moody's diary. Then I have my students complete a web project where they find and read oral histories of individuals involved in the CRM. I show the Eyes on the Prize video, and we read A Raisin in the Sun. I try to tie it all together in context of what was happening in the CRM and where it was occurring. After my students have gained a background knowledge of the movement we have some great discussions. Jan Fyffe Fairborn HS Fairborn, OH This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --1cc.12812675_alt_bound Content-Type: text/html; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Reply to Susan in NC:

I teach some info about the CRM in conjunction with English courses at the H= S level.  I usually start off with an excerpt found in Southern Anth= ology of Short Stories from Anne Moody's diary.  Then I have my stu= dents complete a web project where they find and read oral histories of indi= viduals involved in the CRM.  I show the Eyes on the Prize video= , and we read A Raisin in the Sun.  I try to tie it all together= in context of what was happening in the CRM and where it was occurring.&nbs= p; After my students have gained a background knowledge of the movement we h= ave some great discussions. 

Jan Fyffe
Fairborn HS
Fairborn, OH
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========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 13:43:55 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Barbara Egypt Subject: Helpful Materials MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="0-117941399-1066250635=:37207" --0-117941399-1066250635=:37207 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Friends, I would suggest looking at the National Urban League's The State of Black America. This publication serves to bridge the gap between what is considered the "end" of the CRM and current issues and challenges in our community. Their website is www.nul.org and is very helplful. Many people now consider that everything is "over" regarding the challenges which still confront the African American community: NUL gives good data and is well-researched. Thanks for all the excellent posts. Barbara Anne Clarke Egypt, Ph.D., currently Director, The African American Cultural Enrichment Academy for children ages 5-11 (three groups). --------------------------------- Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-117941399-1066250635=:37207 Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii
Friends,
 
I would suggest looking at the National Urban League's The State of Black  America.  This publication serves to bridge the gap between what is considered the "end" of the CRM and current issues and challenges in our community. Their website is www.nul.org and is very helplful. Many people now consider that everything is "over" regarding the challenges which still confront the African American community: NUL gives good data and is well-researched. Thanks for all the excellent posts. Barbara Anne Clarke Egypt, Ph.D., currently Director, The African American Cultural Enrichment Academy for children ages 5-11 (three groups).


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The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-117941399-1066250635=:37207-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 13:46:10 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Barbara Egypt Subject: Re: High School kids and CRM In-Reply-To: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="0-2050078755-1066250770=:6880" --0-2050078755-1066250770=:6880 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Friends, Just browse through the internet; I don't have any of the items at hand, but there are several complete African American History curricula on the web which include the CRM and may be helpful. begypt@yahoo.com. Kay Rout wrote: I am so happy to be a part of this discussion. I teach US History to 11th graders who have no grasp of the Civil Rights Movement. Would someone please post a lesson that you have had success with on the Civil Rights Movement? I would like to see how others teach this. I would appreciate any help anyone could give. Thanks for the great discussions Susan Maynor Purnell Swett High School Pembroke, NC Susan: I always begin by pointing out how Brown v. Board of Ed reversed Plessy v. Ferguson, which of course has to be explained first. The, although not everyone in this forum agrees, I credit that with giving hope to blacks and awakening to whites; thus you can seque into the Montgomery bus boycott. I don’t know how sensitive your kids are, but when I teach the 60’s in college I never omit the violence of the right wing resistance as contrasted with the nonviolence of King and others. Thus, I’d cover the killing of Emmett Till, very close to your students’ age (14) in the summer right before the boycott. Students would be interested at the violence generated, too, over school integration. Show them Little Rock, 1957; do Autherine Lucy and James Meredith. To me, Kennedy’s “Ask not...” line inspired whites to get involved. It was 4 months after that inaugural speech that white kids participated in the freedom rides. It was also after a major speech of his on civil rights on June 11, 1963 that Medgar Evers was assassinated; it was after midnight, so it was actually June 12, but it was the same night, and in reaction to the speech. And some, like one southern woman who told me after JFK’s assassination. “I’m going to do everything I can now for civil rights” (I didn’t believe her), assumed that he was killed over the civil rights issue, and not Vietnam, as Oliver Stone’s film and many authors assume. So key with high school and college, to me is— stress on role of youth (book, The Children, D. Halberstam was it?) and emphasis on schools and the moral high ground of nonviolence v. the guaranteed murderous rage of the right. How’s that? Oh, and one of the most successful films I have ever used in college is Oliver Stone’s documentary, Assassinated: The Last Days of Kennedy and King. Robert Kennedy, that is— April and June, 1968. KayThis forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --------------------------------- Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-2050078755-1066250770=:6880 Content-Type: text/html; charset=us-ascii
Friends,
 
Just browse through the internet; I don't have any of the items at hand, but there are several complete African American History curricula on the web which include the CRM and may be helpful. begypt@yahoo.com.

Kay Rout <rout@MSU.EDU> wrote:
I am so happy to be a part of this discussion.  I teach US History to 11th graders who have no grasp of the Civil Rights Movement.  Would someone please post a lesson that you have had success with on the Civil Rights Movement?  I would like to see how others teach this.
I would appreciate any help anyone could give.  Thanks for the great discussions

Susan Maynor
Purnell Swett High School
Pembroke, NC

Susan: I always begin by pointing out how Brown v. Board of Ed reversed Plessy v. Ferguson, which of course has to be explained first.  The, although not everyone in this forum agrees, I credit that with giving hope to blacks and awakening to whites; thus you can seque into the Montgomery bus boycott.  I don’t know how sensitive your kids are, but when I teach the 60’s in college I never omit the violence of the right wing resistance as contrasted with the nonviolence of King and others.  Thus, I’d cover the killing of Emmett Till, very close to your students’ age (14) in the summer right before the boycott.
 
Students would be interested at the violence generated, too, over school integration.  Show them Little Rock, 1957; do Autherine Lucy and James Meredith.  To me, Kennedy’s “Ask not...” line inspired whites to get involved.  It was 4 months after that inaugural speech that white kids participated in the freedom rides.  It was also after a major speech of his on civil rights on June 11, 1963 that Medgar Evers was assassinated; it was after midnight, so it was actually June 12, but it was the same night, and in reaction to the speech.  And some, like one southern woman who told me after JFK’s assassination. “I’m going to do everything I can now for civil rights” (I didn’t believe her),  assumed that he was killed over the civil rights issue, and not Vietnam, as Oliver Stone’s film and many authors assume.  

So key with high school and college, to me is— stress on role of youth (book, The Children, D. Halberstam was it?)  and emphasis on schools and the moral  high ground of nonviolence v. the guaranteed murderous rage of the right.  How’s that?  

Oh, and one of the most successful films I have ever used in college is Oliver Stone’s documentary,  Assassinated: The Last Days of Kennedy and King.  Robert Kennedy, that is— April and June, 1968.
Kay
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History.


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The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --0-2050078755-1066250770=:6880-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 15:51:16 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Damon Freeman Subject: Re: query re: Carson's In Struggle Comments: To: Glenn Mitoma In-Reply-To: <3F8D7C76.8080207@cgu.edu> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit I find that biographies and autobiographies work best for undergraduates in teaching the Civil Rights Movement. I used "Ready From Within" actually in a course on Black Power to emphasize changing perceptions of the self in relation to the Southern movement (at the same time with Kwame Ture's "Black Power"). It worked very well; many of the students found her account highly readable and engaging. As for SNCC, I used James Forman's autobiography "The Making of Black Revolutionaries." Again students found it accessible, although long, especially for its connections between military service, the inner workings of SNCC, the nationalism vs. integrationism debate, and the relationship with the Black Panthers. It complicated the traditional notion that a dividing line existed between Civil Rights and Black Power. Regards, Damon Freeman Quoting Glenn Mitoma : > Greetings, > > First, I want to express my gratitude for the thoughtful > contributions > thus far. I am a Ph.D. candidate in Cultural Studies currently > knee-deep in my first semester of university teaching and have > already > found much that will be of use to me in the coming months. At the > risk > of shamelessly exploiting this forum for my own benefit, I am > wondering > if any of the more experienced voices can offer their perspective on > teaching Claybourne Carson's classic In Stuggle. It is the main text > I > am using for a four week unit on the CRM that is part of an > introductory > survey course in American Studies. In choosing to use the SNCC book > as > an entry into the CRM more broadly, I was hoping that there might be > some identification between the college student activists in SNCC and > my > students. Beyond this issue, SNCC as an organization seems to have > confronted and negotiated (both successfully and unsuccessfully) many > of > the issues discussed on this list - grassroots vs. national > movement, > community organizing vs. power politics, charismatic leadership vs. > local footsoldiers, gender issues, international issues, etc. Have > others used Carson's book in this manner and was it successful? > > In modest contribution to some of the other threads on the list: > > Another interesting treatment of international issues and the CRM is > Thomas Borstelmann, "The Cold War and the Color Line" which offers > an > excellent comparative treatment of the Southern US and South Africa. > > With regard to women in the movement, Septima Clark - a figure at > least > as signficant as Baker or Hamer - has, in my opinion, been > scandalously > neglected by scholars. Cynthia Stokes Brown's "Ready From Within" > offers an interesting narrative, but certainly not the level of > analysis > that Clark's contibution deserves. If others can offer other sources > or > even current work on Clark, I'd be interested to hear about it. > Also > Sara Evans' "Personal Politics" is quite successful in connecting > women's work in the CRM to the later emergence of the Women's > Movement. > > Regards, > Glenn Mitoma > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site > at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. > History. > -- Damon Freeman Bankhead Fellow Department of History University of Alabama This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 17:36:49 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Susan Strickland Subject: Re: Help! In-Reply-To: <000c01c392a2$18ef5080$6101a8c0@launchmodem.com> MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0001_01C39342.EA969E90" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0001_01C39342.EA969E90 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_001_0002_01C39342.EA98E880" ------=_NextPart_001_0002_01C39342.EA98E880 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Ms. Maynor, I am attaching to this email a copy of my Civil Rights Tree Project. It is intended to supplement daily teaching with a collaborative group project. The most provocative part of this exercise for my APUS students was their oral presentations in which they had to justify why they chose to create a new 'branch" on the tree - as in an economic impact, government policy, etc. I favor the tree approach - with the 13, 14, and 15th amendments being the roots, because it forces high school students to analyze where the movement shifts, what new branches to create and why. Trade books I favor are The History of Us series, All the People, by Joy Hakim. For poor readers this text is very visual, incorporates primary material and is intellectually engaging but brief. Nevertheless, there is enough meat in this text to spark a good one day discussion on a variety of key issues for advanced, upper level students. Carefully selected excerpts from biographies, old Life magazines, are helpful as well. The Southern Poverty Law Center is a good contact for resources. Their most recent film on Rosa Parks is excellent. Happy hunting, Susan C. Strickland Friendly High School -----Original Message----- From: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement [mailto:CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU] On Behalf Of Susan C. Maynor Sent: Tuesday, October 14, 2003 6:26 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Help! I am so happy to be a part of this discussion. I teach US History to 11th graders who have no grasp of the Civil Rights Movement. Would someone please post a lesson that you have had success with on the Civil Rights Movement? I would like to see how others teach this. I would appreciate any help anyone could give. Thanks for the great discussions Susan Maynor Purnell Swett High School Pembroke, NC This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_001_0002_01C39342.EA98E880 Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Ms. Maynor,

 

I am attaching to this email a copy = of my Civil Rights Tree Project.  = It is intended to supplement daily teaching with a collaborative group = project.  The most provocative part of = this exercise for my APUS students was their oral presentations in which they = had to justify why they chose to create a new ‘branch” on the tree = – as in an economic impact, government policy, etc.  I favor the tree approach = – with the 13, 14, and 15th amendments being the roots, because it = forces high school students to analyze where the movement shifts, what new = branches to create and why.  Trade = books I favor are The History of Us series, All the People, by Joy Hakim.  For poor readers this text is = very visual, incorporates primary material and is intellectually engaging but = brief.  Nevertheless, there is enough = meat in this text to spark a good one day discussion on a variety of key issues = for advanced, upper level students.   Carefully selected excerpts from biographies, old Life magazines, are helpful as well.  The Southern Poverty Law Center = is a good contact for resources.  Their most recent film on Rosa Parks is excellent.  

 

Happy = hunting,

 

Susan C. = Strickland

Friendly High = School

 

-----Original = Message-----
From: Teaching the Civil = Rights Movement [mailto:CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU] On Behalf Of Susan C. Maynor
Sent: Tuesday, October = 14, 2003 6:26 PM
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU
Subject: = Help!

 

I am so happy to be a part = of this discussion.  I teach US History to 11th graders who have no grasp = of the Civil Rights Movement.  Would someone please post a lesson that you = have had success with on the Civil Rights Movement?  I would like to see = how others teach this.

I would appreciate any help = anyone could give.  Thanks for the great = discussions

 

Susan = Maynor

Purnell Swett High = School

Pembroke, = NC

 

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. 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AAAAAAAAAAsAAAAAAAAACwAAAAAAAAAeEAAAAQAAAAUAAABBUFVTAAwQAAACAAAAHgAAAAYAAABU aXRsZQADAAAAAQAAAADQAgAACAAAAAAAAABIAAAAAQAAANwAAAACAAAA5AAAAAMAAAA8AQAABAAA AEQCAAAFAAAATAIAAAYAAABgAgAABwAAAKQCAAA= ------=_NextPart_000_0001_01C39342.EA969E90-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 18:30:12 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Susan Strickland Subject: areas of emphasis MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Dear forum, =20 Dr. Newby's recent post reinforces how easily emails can be = misinterpreted. I did not mean to suggest that a scholar of his caliber would be capable = of slighting any aspect of the Civil Rights Movement in his research. = Indeed, his thoughtful and balanced reply indicates but a fraction of the = material he and others have studied in their quest for knowledge. =20 Likewise, please do not construe my short reply to be a critique of = anyone's research. And, yes, I have used Howard Zinn's, A People's History both = in teaching the Civil Right's Movement and the Westward Expansion phase of = U.S. history. It is an invaluable source because of his extensive use of = quotes from the "less than famous" who helped make history. One primary = purpose of this forum, I believe, is to focus on what should be taught and how, as = well as what areas warrant greater scrutiny. To that end, I am concerned that survey course teachers carefully evaluate what aspects of the CRM = receive they choose to include in their curriculum. The CRM provides a platform = to teach values, reinforce belief in democracy, and spotlight what makes a leader. There is an international dimension to anything the U.S. as a nation pursues that cannot be ignored. With renewed humility, I pose = the question to the group for analysis: Should the confluence of ideas from emerging African nations and Black leaders in the U.S, the scrutiny of critics in the USSR, and the cold war dynamic at play between the U.S. = and developing nations be a part of the teaching of the CRM as a whole or = best confined to a Government/Political Science curriculum? My fear is that = the "time crunch" that affects survey courses at the college and high school level will result in the story of the "grass roots" aspect of the = movement and its message getting lost in the shuffle. Or, perhaps, someone would = like to suggest a way to juxtaposition these two issues in a manner that = would be thought provoking for students and lead them to a deeper understanding = of the core issues. To that end I don't think socialism v. capitalism is = the way to go. In my experience, students get lost in their own opinions of each system, and/or globalization, and lose focus on the CRM. My = personal interest is in women's history but I have to struggle with not losing my focus my to it as well in a survey course. =20 Thank you for taking time to consider my concerns. I am very grateful = for the opportunity to learn from your experience and research. =20 Sincerely, =20 Susan C. Strickland Friendly High School This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 17:57:31 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: robyn spencer Subject: Re: query re: Carson's In Struggle MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_03A7_01C39345.CE51F510" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_03A7_01C39345.CE51F510 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable While Carson's In Struggle is certainly a classic in its treatment of = SNCC, as the sole teaching text about the movement, it may prove = limited. It does not provide much context to the emergence of the = student movement--there has been so much interesting work about WWII as = a watershed that Carson does not address. In addition its treatment of = Black Power is uninformed by much of the recent literature. (Here I = have to recommend Komozi Woodard and Jeanne Theoharris' Freedom North. = This collection of essays really breaks down some of the simplistic = binaries between Civil Rights/Black Power that under girded some of the = earlier literature.) Instead, I'd suggest Payne's I've Got the Light of = Freedom or Ditmer's Local People, or at least supplementing Carson with = other articles or texts. (One article I'd particularly recommend is: = Tyson, Timothy B. "Robert F. Williams, 'Black Power,' and the Roots of = the African-American Freedom Struggle." The Journal of American History, = September 1998, 85(2), 540-70. )=20 =20 Septima Clark:=20 Septima Clark is often neglected as not only an activist, but as an = ideologue. For shorter pieces on Septima Clark, see Chapter 12 of Lynne = Olson's Freedom's Daughters and "We seek to know.in Order to Speak the = Truth": Nurturing the Seeds of Discontent-Septima Clark and = Participatory Leadership" by Jacqueline Rouse in Sisters in the = Struggle. For more on Clark's work with the first Citizenship School on = John's Island see Ain't You Got a Right to the Tree of Life? The People = of Johns Island South Carolina--Their Faces, Their Words, and Their = Songs edited by Guy Carawan and Candie Carawan.=20 =20 International Context: Also see: Cary Fraser, "Crossing the Color Line in Little Rock: The = Eisenhower Administration and the Dilemma of Race for American Foreign = Policy," Diplomatic History, vol. 24 no.2, 2000 Robyn Spencer African and African American Studies Penn State University ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Glenn Mitoma=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Wednesday, October 15, 2003 12:57 PM Subject: query re: Carson's In Struggle Greetings, First, I want to express my gratitude for the thoughtful contributions thus far. I am a Ph.D. candidate in Cultural Studies currently knee-deep in my first semester of university teaching and have already found much that will be of use to me in the coming months. At the = risk of shamelessly exploiting this forum for my own benefit, I am = wondering if any of the more experienced voices can offer their perspective on teaching Claybourne Carson's classic In Stuggle. It is the main text = I am using for a four week unit on the CRM that is part of an = introductory survey course in American Studies. In choosing to use the SNCC book = as an entry into the CRM more broadly, I was hoping that there might be some identification between the college student activists in SNCC and = my students. Beyond this issue, SNCC as an organization seems to have confronted and negotiated (both successfully and unsuccessfully) many = of the issues discussed on this list - grassroots vs. national movement, community organizing vs. power politics, charismatic leadership vs. local footsoldiers, gender issues, international issues, etc. Have others used Carson's book in this manner and was it successful? In modest contribution to some of the other threads on the list: Another interesting treatment of international issues and the CRM is Thomas Borstelmann, "The Cold War and the Color Line" which offers an excellent comparative treatment of the Southern US and South Africa. With regard to women in the movement, Septima Clark - a figure at = least as signficant as Baker or Hamer - has, in my opinion, been = scandalously neglected by scholars. Cynthia Stokes Brown's "Ready From Within" offers an interesting narrative, but certainly not the level of = analysis that Clark's contibution deserves. If others can offer other sources = or even current work on Clark, I'd be interested to hear about it. Also Sara Evans' "Personal Politics" is quite successful in connecting women's work in the CRM to the later emergence of the Women's = Movement. Regards, Glenn Mitoma This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site = at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_03A7_01C39345.CE51F510 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

While=20 Carson=92s In Struggle = is=20 certainly a classic in its treatment of SNCC, as the sole teaching text = about=20 the movement, it may prove limited. It does not provide much context to = the=20 emergence of the student movement--there has been so much interesting = work about=20 WWII as a watershed that = Carson does=20 not address. In addition its treatment of Black Power is uninformed by = much of=20 the recent literature.  (Here I have=20 to recommend Komozi Woodard and Jeanne Theoharris=92 Freedom North. This collection = of essays=20  really breaks down some = of the=20 simplistic binaries between Civil Rights/Black Power that under girded = some of=20 the earlier literature.)  Instead, I=92d suggest = Payne=92s I=92ve Got the Light of = Freedom or=20 Ditmer=92s Local People, or at least supplementing Carson with = other=20 articles or texts. (One article I'd particularly recommend is: Tyson, = Timothy B.=20 "Robert F. Williams, 'Black Power,' and the Roots of the = African-American=20 Freedom Struggle." The Journal of American History, September = 1998,=20 85(2), 540-70. ) 

 

Septima Clark:=20

Septima Clark is often = neglected=20 as not only an activist, but as an ideologue.  For shorter pieces on Septima = Clark, see=20 Chapter 12 of Lynne Olson=92s Freedom=92s=20 Daughters and =93We seek to know=85in Order to Speak the Truth=94: = Nurturing the=20 Seeds of Discontent=97Septima Clark and Participatory Leadership=94 by = Jacqueline=20 Rouse in Sisters in the Struggle. For more on = Clark=92s=20 work with the first = Citizenship=20 School on John=92s=20 Island see Ain't You Got a Right to the Tree = of Life?=20 The People of Johns = Island=20 South=20 Carolina--Their Faces, Their Words, and = Their=20 Songs edited by = Guy Carawan=20 and Candie Carawan.

 

International=20 Context:

Also see:  Cary Fraser, "Crossing the Color Line in=20 Little=20 Rock: = The=20 Eisenhower Administration and the Dilemma of Race for American Foreign = Policy,"=20 Diplomatic History, vol. 24 no.2, 2000

 

Robyn Spencer

African and African American=20 Studies

Penn State = University

----- Original Message -----
From: Glenn Mitoma
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Wednesday, October 15, = 2003 12:57=20 PM
Subject: query re: Carson's In=20 Struggle

Greetings,

First, I want to express my gratitude = for the=20 thoughtful contributions
thus far.  I am a Ph.D. candidate in = Cultural=20 Studies currently
knee-deep in my first semester of university = teaching and=20 have already
found much that will be of use to me in the coming=20 months.  At the risk
of shamelessly exploiting this forum for = my own=20 benefit, I am wondering
if any of the more experienced voices can = offer=20 their perspective on
teaching Claybourne Carson's classic In = Stuggle. =20 It is the main text I
am using for a four week unit on the CRM that = is part=20 of an introductory
survey course in American Studies.  In = choosing to=20 use the SNCC book as
an entry into the CRM more broadly, I was = hoping that=20 there might be
some identification between the college student = activists in=20 SNCC and my
students.  Beyond this issue, SNCC as an = organization=20 seems to have
confronted and negotiated (both successfully and=20 unsuccessfully) many of
the issues discussed on this list - = grassroots vs.=20 national movement,
community organizing vs. power politics, = charismatic=20 leadership vs.
local footsoldiers, gender issues, international = issues,=20 etc.  Have
others used Carson's book in this manner and was it = successful?

In modest contribution to some of the other threads = on the=20 list:

Another interesting treatment of international issues and = the CRM=20 is
Thomas Borstelmann, "The Cold War and the Color Line" which = offers=20 an
excellent comparative treatment of the Southern US and South=20 Africa.

With regard to women in the movement, Septima Clark - a = figure=20 at least
as signficant as Baker or Hamer - has, in my opinion, been = scandalously
neglected by scholars.  Cynthia Stokes Brown's = "Ready=20 From Within"
offers an interesting narrative, but certainly not the = level=20 of analysis
that Clark's contibution deserves.  If others can = offer=20 other sources or
even current work on Clark, I'd be interested to = hear=20 about it.  Also
Sara Evans' "Personal Politics" is quite = successful in=20 connecting
women's work in the CRM to the later emergence of the = Women's=20 Movement.

Regards,
Glenn Mitoma

This forum is = sponsored by=20 History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu = for=20 more resources for teaching U.S. = History.
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_03A7_01C39345.CE51F510-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 18:10:08 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: robyn spencer Subject: Re: High School kids and CRM MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_03B3_01C39347.915BF5F0" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_03B3_01C39347.915BF5F0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Re: High School kids and CRMKay: Another good resource is a book called Minds Stayed on Freedom: The = Civil Rights Struggle in the Rural South edited by Youth of the Rural = Organizing and Cultural Center. It is a book produced by high school = students who went out and interviewed civil rights activists in Holmes = County, Mississippi. The interviews are really poignant and in their own = way tell the story of economic intimidation, political disfranchisement = and resistance that lay at the heart of the movement. Each chapter is a = different interviewee so it is easily broken into chunks for students to = digest. Most importantly, the book gives students a sense of themselves = as historians. A supplemental assignment could involve assigning = students to do oral histories with people who lived through segregation = and the civil rights movement. This would bring the movement home to = them in very personal ways.=20 Stanford's King's Papers Project has excellent resources for lesson = plans. "The Liberation Curriculum is designed to support the work of middle and = high school humanities teachers by fostering professional development = and curricular innovation through the use of internet and multimedia = technology. Initially developed in collaboration with the Oakland = Unified School District's Urban Dreams Project, lesson plans focus on = the use of primary documents related to Martin Luther King, Jr. and the = African-American freedom struggle, as well as other social justice = movements. The goal of the project is to create historically accurate = and pedagogically effective educational materials that address issues of = social justice and human rights, while meeting state and national = standards. A web-based community, coupled with a series of workshops, = gives teachers the necessary resources and support to fully integrate = the Liberation Curriculum into their teaching. " http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/liberation_curriculum/lesson_plansFram= e.htm Robyn Spencer ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Kay Rout=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Wednesday, October 15, 2003 2:38 PM Subject: Re: High School kids and CRM I am so happy to be a part of this discussion. I teach US History = to 11th graders who have no grasp of the Civil Rights Movement. Would = someone please post a lesson that you have had success with on the Civil = Rights Movement? I would like to see how others teach this. I would appreciate any help anyone could give. Thanks for the great = discussions Susan Maynor Purnell Swett High School Pembroke, NC Susan: I always begin by pointing out how Brown v. Board of Ed = reversed Plessy v. Ferguson, which of course has to be explained first. = The, although not everyone in this forum agrees, I credit that with = giving hope to blacks and awakening to whites; thus you can seque into = the Montgomery bus boycott. I don't know how sensitive your kids are, = but when I teach the 60's in college I never omit the violence of the = right wing resistance as contrasted with the nonviolence of King and = others. Thus, I'd cover the killing of Emmett Till, very close to your = students' age (14) in the summer right before the boycott.=20 =20 Students would be interested at the violence generated, too, over = school integration. Show them Little Rock, 1957; do Autherine Lucy and = James Meredith. To me, Kennedy's "Ask not..." line inspired whites to = get involved. It was 4 months after that inaugural speech that white = kids participated in the freedom rides. It was also after a major = speech of his on civil rights on June 11, 1963 that Medgar Evers was = assassinated; it was after midnight, so it was actually June 12, but it = was the same night, and in reaction to the speech. And some, like one = southern woman who told me after JFK's assassination. "I'm going to do = everything I can now for civil rights" (I didn't believe her), assumed = that he was killed over the civil rights issue, and not Vietnam, as = Oliver Stone's film and many authors assume. =20 So key with high school and college, to me is- stress on role of = youth (book, The Children, D. Halberstam was it?) and emphasis on = schools and the moral high ground of nonviolence v. the guaranteed = murderous rage of the right. How's that? =20 Oh, and one of the most successful films I have ever used in college = is Oliver Stone's documentary, Assassinated: The Last Days of Kennedy = and King. Robert Kennedy, that is- April and June, 1968. Kay This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site = at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_03B3_01C39347.915BF5F0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Re: High School kids and CRM
Kay:
 
Another good resource is a book called Minds Stayed on Freedom: = The=20 Civil Rights Struggle in the Rural South edited by Youth of the = Rural=20 Organizing and Cultural Center. It is a book produced by high school = students=20 who went out and interviewed civil rights activists in Holmes County,=20 Mississippi. The interviews are really poignant and in their own way = tell the=20 story of economic intimidation, political disfranchisement and = resistance that=20 lay at the heart of the movement. Each chapter is a different = interviewee so it=20 is easily broken into chunks for students to digest. Most = importantly, the=20 book gives students a sense of themselves as historians. A = supplemental=20 assignment could involve assigning students to do oral histories = with=20 people who lived through segregation and the civil rights movement. This = would bring the movement home to them in very personal ways.
 
Stanford's King's Papers Project has excellent resources for lesson = plans.
 
"The Liberation Curriculum is designed to support the work = of=20 middle and high school humanities teachers by fostering professional = development=20 and curricular innovation through the use of internet and multimedia = technology.=20 Initially developed in collaboration with the Oakland Unified School = District=92s=20 Urban Dreams Project, lesson plans focus on the use of primary documents = related=20 to Martin Luther King, Jr. and the African-American freedom struggle, as = well as=20 other social justice movements. The goal of the project is to create=20 historically accurate and pedagogically effective educational materials = that=20 address issues of social justice and human rights, while meeting state = and=20 national standards. A web-based community, coupled with a series of = workshops,=20 gives teachers the necessary resources and support to fully integrate = the=20 Liberation Curriculum into their teaching. "
http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/liberation_curriculum/l= esson_plansFrame.htm
 
Robyn Spencer
----- Original Message -----
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Wednesday, October 15, = 2003 2:38=20 PM
Subject: Re: High School kids = and=20 CRM

I am so happy to be a = part of this=20 discussion.  I teach US History to 11th graders who have no = grasp of=20 the Civil Rights Movement.  Would someone please post a lesson = that you=20 have had success with on the Civil Rights Movement?  I would = like to=20 see how others teach this.
I would appreciate any help anyone = could give.=20  Thanks for the great discussions

Susan=20 Maynor
Purnell Swett High School
Pembroke, = NC

Susan: I always begin by pointing out how Brown = v. Board of=20 Ed reversed Plessy v. Ferguson, which of course has to be explained = first.=20  The, although not everyone in this forum agrees, I credit that = with=20 giving hope to blacks and awakening to whites; thus you can seque = into the=20 Montgomery bus boycott.  I don=92t know how sensitive your kids = are, but=20 when I teach the 60=92s in college I never omit the violence of the = right wing=20 resistance as contrasted with the nonviolence of King and others.=20  Thus, I=92d cover the killing of Emmett Till, very close to = your=20 students=92 age (14) in the summer right before the boycott.=20
 
Students would be interested at the violence = generated, too,=20 over school integration.  Show them Little Rock, 1957; do = Autherine=20 Lucy and James Meredith.  To me, Kennedy=92s =93Ask not...=94 = line inspired=20 whites to get involved.  It was 4 months after that inaugural = speech=20 that white kids participated in the freedom rides.  It was also = after a=20 major speech of his on civil rights on June 11, 1963 that Medgar = Evers was=20 assassinated; it was after midnight, so it was actually June 12, but = it was=20 the same night, and in reaction to the speech.  And some, like = one=20 southern woman who told me after JFK=92s assassination. =93I=92m = going to do=20 everything I can now for civil rights=94 (I didn=92t believe her), =  assumed=20 that he was killed over the civil rights issue, and not Vietnam, as = Oliver=20 Stone=92s film and many authors assume.  

So key with = high school=20 and college, to me is=97 stress on role of youth (book, The = Children, D.=20 Halberstam was it?)  and emphasis on schools and the moral =  high=20 ground of nonviolence v. the guaranteed murderous rage of the right. =  How=92s that?  

Oh, and one of the most successful = films I=20 have ever used in college is Oliver Stone=92s documentary, =  Assassinated:=20 The Last Days of Kennedy and King.  Robert Kennedy, that is=97 = April and=20 June, 1968.
Kay
This forum is sponsored by = History=20 Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu = for more=20 resources for teaching U.S. History.
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_03B3_01C39347.915BF5F0-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 22:31:57 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charity Pitton Subject: Teaching ideas - video MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0047_01C3936C.2482AA80" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0047_01C3936C.2482AA80 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Kay’s email reminded me: Another teacher in our program has used the Ruby Bridges video and loves it. It does get the kids to connect to what happened on a very personal level, and our less academic students appreciate the chance to learn from something a little “lighter,” but I have no idea of the quality of scholarship. Can any of you who are more knowledgeable about the CRM let me know if this is a decent movie from factual standpoint? I know it doesn’t provide much solid information, but I am concerned if it provides incorrect or misleading information. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0047_01C3936C.2482AA80 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

Kay’s email reminded me: Another teacher in our program has = used the Ruby Bridges video and loves it. It does get the kids to connect to what happened on a very personal level, and our less academic students = appreciate the chance to learn from something a little “lighter,” but I = have no idea of the quality of scholarship. Can any of you who are more knowledgeable = about the CRM let me know if this is a decent movie from factual standpoint? I = know it doesn’t provide much solid information, but I am concerned if it = provides incorrect or misleading information.

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0047_01C3936C.2482AA80-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 21:50:03 -0600 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Caren Brandt Philips Subject: Re: Help! MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0672_01C39366.4A1D0930" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0672_01C39366.4A1D0930 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable A further response to Susan Maynor's request for suggestions to get = students to grasp the Civil Rights Movement:=20 Another thing I did was to have students research (with websites = provided) various leaders and then present them. After viewing one of = the SPLC Teaching Tolerance films I had students get more personally = involved by having them write a reflection on what aspect of the the = movement, if any, they would have gotten involved in if they had been of = age to do so.=20 A powerful closing activity that I did was to take quotes from various = leaders and post them on the wall. Students needed to match up the = authors with the quotes. What was especially powerful was when students = would mistakenly attribute a quote of Malcolm X to MLK, Jr. or vice = versa. Can provide more details, quotes, if desired. A related activity = was that I collected comments students wrote in response to various warm = up prompts, that contained wisdom and I posted those on the wall along = with quotes from the greats, thus empowering them to speak and share = wisdom.=20 ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Susan C. Maynor=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Tuesday, October 14, 2003 4:25 PM Subject: Help! I am so happy to be a part of this discussion. I teach US History to = 11th graders who have no grasp of the Civil Rights Movement. Would = someone please post a lesson that you have had success with on the Civil = Rights Movement? I would like to see how others teach this. I would appreciate any help anyone could give. Thanks for the great = discussions Susan Maynor Purnell Swett High School Pembroke, NC This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site = at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History.=20 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0672_01C39366.4A1D0930 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
A further response to Susan Maynor's = request for=20 suggestions to get students to grasp the Civil Rights Movement: =
Another thing I did was to have = students research=20 (with websites provided) various leaders and then present them. = After=20 viewing one of the SPLC Teaching Tolerance films I had students get more = personally involved by having them write a reflection on what = aspect of the=20 the movement, if any, they would have gotten involved in if they had = been of age=20 to do so.
A powerful closing activity that I did = was to take=20 quotes from various leaders and post them on the wall. Students needed = to match=20 up the authors with the quotes. What was especially powerful was when = students=20 would mistakenly attribute a quote of Malcolm X to MLK, Jr. or vice = versa. Can=20 provide more details, quotes, if desired. A related activity was that I=20 collected comments students wrote in response to various warm up = prompts, that=20 contained wisdom and I posted those on the wall along with quotes from = the=20 greats, thus empowering them to speak and share wisdom.
----- Original Message -----
From:=20 Susan C.=20 Maynor
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Tuesday, October 14, 2003 = 4:25=20 PM
Subject: Help!

I am so happy to be a part of this=20 discussion.  I teach US History to 11th graders who have no grasp = of the=20 Civil Rights Movement.  Would someone please post a lesson that = you have=20 had success with on the Civil Rights Movement?  I would like to = see how=20 others teach this.
I would appreciate any help anyone = could=20 give.  Thanks for the great discussions
 
Susan Maynor
Purnell Swett High = School
Pembroke, NC
 
This forum is = sponsored by=20 History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu=20 for more resources for teaching U.S. History. = This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0672_01C39366.4A1D0930-- ========================================================================= Date: Wed, 15 Oct 2003 21:41:50 -0600 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Caren Brandt Philips Subject: Re: Help! MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0650_01C39365.241D0F10" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0650_01C39365.241D0F10 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable I don't know if my email got forwarded (let me know - I thought I got a = notice that it did, but I never received it as part of a general = distribution myself) - Anyway, following are some ideas I tried to = convey. I can probably send you a more specific lesson plan if you want = me to dig it out. I had students make posters from the materials below, = drawing a picture and summarizing the stories of the people pictured and = described. Though my 11th graders did not usually read much more than a = paragraph, these stories were short (1 page) and compelling enough to = get a good response. We hung up the posters and it was very powerful. = Let me know if you need more. ----- Original Message -----=20 From: "Caren Brandt Philips" To: "Teaching the Civil Rights Movement" = Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 7:51 PM Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne > I have used the Southern Poverty Law Center's materials with great = success, > with high school and even middle school students. Check out their = website at > teachingtolerance.org. 2 basic 1 hour films use excerpts from Eyes = on the > Prize and are very powerful overviews. There's now a new one on Rosa = Parks. > It's free to schools. Their excellent written materials include = synopses and > photos of well known and not-so-well known civil rights heroes. >=20 > Another amazing film is a documentary by 60 Minutes reporters on how = the > Black Panthers were targeted for destruction by the FBI - I just can't > remember the title but can dig it out if someone wants to know. I was = able > to rent it from my independent video store to show in school. >=20 > I want to take Nishani Frasier's comment about the music of the era = one > step further, and say that I think sometimes the nonviolent aspect of = the > Civil Rights Movement is overemphasized. I was a teenager in the = 60's, > growing up in a white neighborhoods in NY, reading Eldridge Cleaver, = Malcolm > X's biography, etc. When teaching the Civil Rights movement at least = at the > high school level and above, I think it is important for students to = figure > out that violence and the threat of violence - including riots and = talk of > revolution had a huge effect on the successes of the movement. And to = bring > in current statistics to debunk white students' notions that everyone = is > equal now. I found it hard to dig out usable statistics and other > information very quickly, however, e.g., statistics on class and race. ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Susan C. Maynor=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Tuesday, October 14, 2003 4:25 PM Subject: Help! I am so happy to be a part of this discussion. I teach US History to = 11th graders who have no grasp of the Civil Rights Movement. Would = someone please post a lesson that you have had success with on the Civil = Rights Movement? I would like to see how others teach this. I would appreciate any help anyone could give. Thanks for the great = discussions Susan Maynor Purnell Swett High School Pembroke, NC This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site = at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History.=20 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0650_01C39365.241D0F10 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
I don't know if my email got forwarded = (let me know=20 - I thought I got a notice that it did, but I never received it as part = of a=20 general distribution myself) - Anyway, following are some ideas I tried = to=20 convey. I can probably send you a more specific lesson plan if you want = me to=20 dig it out.  I had students make posters from the materials below, = drawing=20 a picture and summarizing the stories of the people pictured and=20 described.  Though my 11th graders did not usually read much more = than a=20 paragraph, these stories were short (1 page) and compelling enough to = get a good=20 response. We hung up the posters and it was very powerful. Let me know = if you=20 need more.
 
----- Original Message -----=20
From: "Caren Brandt Philips" <carenphilips@earthlink.net= >
To: "Teaching the Civil Rights Movement" <CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU>
Sent: Wednesday, October 01, 2003 7:51 PM
Subject: Re: Opening Statement from Charles Payne

> I have used the Southern Poverty Law = Center's=20 materials with great success,
> with high school and even middle = school=20 students. Check out their website at
> = teachingtolerance.org.  =20 2 basic 1 hour films use excerpts from Eyes on the
> Prize and are = very=20 powerful overviews. There's now a new one on Rosa Parks.
> It's = free to=20 schools. Their excellent written materials include synopses and
> = photos=20 of well known and not-so-well known civil rights heroes.
> =
>=20 Another amazing film is a documentary by 60 Minutes reporters on how = the
>=20 Black Panthers were targeted for destruction by the FBI - I just = can't
>=20 remember the title but can dig it out if someone wants to know. I was=20 able
> to rent it from my independent video store to show in=20 school.
>
> I want to take Nishani Frasier's comment about = the=20 music of  the era one
> step further, and say that I think = sometimes=20 the nonviolent aspect of the
> Civil Rights Movement is=20 overemphasized.  I was a teenager in the 60's,
> growing up = in a=20 white neighborhoods in NY, reading Eldridge Cleaver, Malcolm
> X's = biography, etc. When teaching the Civil Rights movement at least at = the
>=20 high school level and above, I think it is important for students to=20 figure
> out that violence and the threat of violence - including = riots=20 and talk of
> revolution had a huge effect on the successes of the = movement. And to bring
> in current statistics to debunk white = students'=20 notions that everyone is
> equal now.  I found it hard to dig = out=20 usable statistics and other
> information very quickly, however, = e.g.,=20 statistics on class and race.
----- Original Message -----
From:=20 Susan C.=20 Maynor
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Tuesday, October 14, 2003 = 4:25=20 PM
Subject: Help!

I am so happy to be a part of this=20 discussion.  I teach US History to 11th graders who have no grasp = of the=20 Civil Rights Movement.  Would someone please post a lesson that = you have=20 had success with on the Civil Rights Movement?  I would like to = see how=20 others teach this.
I would appreciate any help anyone = could=20 give.  Thanks for the great discussions
 
Susan Maynor
Purnell Swett High = School
Pembroke, NC
 
This forum is = sponsored by=20 History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu=20 for more resources for teaching U.S. History. = This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0650_01C39365.241D0F10-- ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 16 Oct 2003 01:18:25 EDT Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Noah B. Cardenas" Subject: Re: Help! MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="part1_189.2021c6c2.2cbf8421_boundary" --part1_189.2021c6c2.2cbf8421_boundary Content-Type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit before offering any lessons, just a few questions... what teaching style do you use in the classroom? what have you covered as a "bulidup" to civil rights... i am trying to understand your style before suggesting what would be benficial, and make the class flow according to your methods. hang in there, noah This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --part1_189.2021c6c2.2cbf8421_boundary Content-Type: text/html; charset="US-ASCII" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable before offering any lessons, just a few questions... w= hat teaching style do you use in the classroom?  what have you covered=20= as a "bulidup" to civil rights... i am trying to understand your style befor= e suggesting what would be benficial, and make the class flow according to y= our methods. 
hang in there,
noah
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --part1_189.2021c6c2.2cbf8421_boundary-- ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 17 Oct 2003 11:56:53 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Pete Haro Subject: Re: Teaching ideas - video Mime-version: 1.0 Content-type: multipart/alternative; boundary="MS_Mac_OE_3149236613_177140_MIME_Part" > THIS MESSAGE IS IN MIME FORMAT. Since your mail reader does not understand this format, some or all of this message may not be legible. --MS_Mac_OE_3149236613_177140_MIME_Part Content-type: text/plain; charset="US-ASCII" Content-transfer-encoding: 7bit Dear Charity: What is the title of the Ruby Bridges video you are mentioning? Sincerely, Pete Haro. ---------- From: Charity Pitton To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Teaching ideas - video Date: Wed, Oct 15, 2003, 7:31 PM Kays email reminded me: Another teacher in our program has used the Ruby Bridges video and loves it. It does get the kids to connect to what happened on a very personal level, and our less academic students appreciate the chance to learn from something a little lighter, but I have no idea of the quality of scholarship. Can any of you who are more knowledgeable about the CRM let me know if this is a decent movie from factual standpoint? I know it doesnt provide much solid information, but I am concerned if it provides incorrect or misleading information. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --MS_Mac_OE_3149236613_177140_MIME_Part Content-type: text/html; charset="US-ASCII" Content-transfer-encoding: quoted-printable Re: Teaching ideas - video Dear Charity: What is the title of the Ruby Bridges video you are mentionin= g? Sincerely, Pete Haro.

----------
From: Charity Pitton <cpitton@AE21.ORG>
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU
Subject: Teaching ideas - video
Date: Wed, Oct 15, 2003, 7:31 PM


Kays email reminded me: Anoth= er teacher in our program has used the Ruby Bridges video and loves it. It d= oes get the kids to connect to what happened on a very personal level, and o= ur less academic students appreciate the chance to learn from something a li= ttle lighter, but I have no idea of the quality of scholarship. Can any of y= ou who are more knowledgeable about the CRM let me know if this is a decent = movie from factual standpoint? I know it doesnt provide much solid informati= on, but I am concerned if it provides incorrect or misleading information.
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu
for more res= ources for teaching U.S. History.
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. --MS_Mac_OE_3149236613_177140_MIME_Part-- ========================================================================= Date: Sat, 18 Oct 2003 20:17:45 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Charles Payne, Ph.D." Subject: unviolence In-Reply-To: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit "Unviolence" is just a great phrase. The violence/ nonviolence does not capture much of what was important to Black Americans. I suspect the tendency to frame so much discussion about the movement in those terms reflects more of the anxieties of white observers of the movement than of the priorities of black people, who were pretty much like other Americans in that they take the right to self-defense for granted in principle, although it may be impractical to exercise it under certain circumstances. At the same time, there is no question that the advocates on nonviolence, either philosophical or tactical, had an impact all out of proportion to their numbers nor that the nonviolent imagery helped the movement claim a certain moral stature. (Although I still can't figure out how much of the movement's progress can be attributed to that, as opposed say, to sheer agitation or to the leverage provided by the Cold War.) In their constructions of self-defense, Black Power advocates were expressing an idea that resonated deeply with feeling across Black America. Tim Tyson's is one of the useful discussions of this . Robert Williams Negroes with Guns is still a very useful discussion of this. Note also the discussion in Tim Tyson's Radio Free Dixie about how much support there was for Williams's advocacy of self-defense among NAACP delegates, which is not where most narratives would expect to find it. Another useful discussion is James Farmer's article about the transition from means-oriented pacifists to ends-oriented activist. I think he is referring to 1962. You can find it in Joanne Grant's Black Protest. I'm re-reading John Dittmer's Local People this week and he makes it very clear that the indigeneous leadership was going to defend itself. -- E. J. Stringer, Amzie Moore, Medgar Evers, E. W. Steptoe, T.R.M. Howard all habitually carried weapons to protect themselves or, in Howard's case, went about with armed guards. In the Delta, there are several incidences of the homes of people who were being pressured being guarded by armed neighbors. Bob Moses said: I don't know if anyone in Mississippi preached to local Negroes that they shouldn't defend themselves ... Probably the closest is when I asked Mr. E. W. Steptoe not to carry guns when we go together at night. So, instead, he just hides his gun and then I find out later...Self-defense is so deeply engrained in rural southern America that we as a small group can't affect it. It's not contradictory for a farmer to say that he's nonviolent and also to pledge to shoot a marauder's head off. (, I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle pp.204-5. If I could rewrite that book one of the things I'd like to explore in more detail is the possibility that those who took a nonviolent posture were only able to do so because they were being protected by more practical local people. There is some evidence , albeit slight, that the purveyors of violence backed off some when Black people began shooting back. Kay Rout referred to some of this in one of her postings, the tendency of killers to start hiding their identities, which a one part of the change. It is clear that the attitudes of rural southerners toward self-defense had some impact on the attitudes of SNCC and CORE workers. The person I know who is doing the most to explore this is Akinyele Umoja at Georgia State: . Akinyele O. Umoja, "1964: the Beginning of the End of Nonviolence in the Mississippi Freedom Movement," Radical History Review, (January 2003). Akinyele O. Umoja, " 'We Will Shoot Back': The Natchez Model and Para-Military Organization in the Mississippi Freedom Movement," Journal of Black Studies, 32, 3, (January 2002), 267-290. Akinyele O. Umoja, "Ballots and Bullets: A Comparative Analysis of Armed Resistance in the Civil Rights Movement," Journal of Black Studies, 29, 4, (March 1999), 558-578. I want students to understand nonviolence is about more than refraining from physical violence. In fact, I would argue that that usage trivializes the concept. If my understanding is correct, the basic principle of "satyagraha" is that whatever you are confronted with in life should be faced with the best and truest part of yourself, and refraining to return physical violence for physical violence is an example, is an example of a general principle, it is not the principle itself. ( A good resources is : King, Mary (Mary Elizabeth), Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. : the power of nonviolent action / Paris : UNESCO Publishing, 1999.) Both Gandhi and King said more than once that physical violence may be the least destructive form of violence. Thinking or speaking ill of another person can do more lasting damage either to that person or to ourselves. One of the presentations I have done with fourth and fifth graders for MLK day is to explain to them that there is nonviolence of the hand, nonviolence of the tongue, nonviolence of the heart. Then we talk about what they think Dr. King would think about the way they treat each other, talk about each other. That surfaces some very important feelings about subjects that students rarely get to talk about. I end by promising the class a pizza party if the teacher tells me that they are nonviolent -- respectful of one another's feelings - for the next week. That gives the teacher a basis for talking about their interaction for the next week. One teacher ended the week by giving MLK awards to the students who best exemplified the spirit of nonviolence. he most I've ever been able to see is that between roughly 1963-65 there was a national consensus that the South could no longer defend its racial system with open, visible violence and open defiance of the federal government. As to when racial violence ended, I don't know how to get a handle on that. Maybe the prior question is when southern states stopped facilitating racial violence. I don't have a copy of Free At Last , the Southern Poverty law Center 's (is that right?) attempt to catalogue martyrs but I remember that some of the killings in 1968 or 1969 seemed pretty traditional in style. What we can say about 1964 is the the Feds began putting a whole new level of pressure on the Southern states to get klansmen out of law enforcement and the like. I know this is more controversial but, for my money, some police attacks on Panthers -- Fred Hampton and Mark Clark , for example -- amount to state-sanctioned lynchings in another form. CP This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Sun, 19 Oct 2003 17:00:27 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Susan C. Maynor" Subject: Thank You MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_000F_01C39662.7EEC90A0" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_000F_01C39662.7EEC90A0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Thanks to all who responded for help in teaching about the CRM.. Please = keep the helpful letters coming in. It is difficult to teach about this = movement to students who believe in fighting. To not fight back is not = something they would ever think of doing. I have received many helpful = ideas, all of which I will try. Susan Maynor Purnell Swett High School Pembroke, NC This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_000F_01C39662.7EEC90A0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Thanks to all who responded for help in = teaching=20 about the CRM..  Please keep the helpful letters coming in.  = It is=20 difficult to teach about this movement to students who believe in=20 fighting.  To not fight back is not something they would ever think = of=20 doing.  I have received many helpful ideas, all of which I will=20 try.
 
Susan Maynor
Purnell Swett High School
Pembroke, NC
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_000F_01C39662.7EEC90A0-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 20 Oct 2003 08:52:55 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Elizabeth Morrison Subject: Re: Thank You Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Disposition: inline Hi Susan! My name is Liz Morrison - I teach at PSHS in Manchester, MO = (suburb of St. Louis) - I have a lesson plan in which I have the students = become particiate in Freedom Summer - I teach them non-violent tactics and = utilize video from "Eyes on the Prize" - it is great! Anyway - if you are = interested send me your school adress and I'll send you the plan! Liz >>> s_maynor@BELLSOUTH.NET - 10/19/03 4:00 PM >>> Thanks to all who responded for help in teaching about the CRM.. Please = keep the helpful letters coming in. It is difficult to teach about this = movement to students who believe in fighting. To not fight back is not = something they would ever think of doing. I have received many helpful = ideas, all of which I will try. Susan Maynor Purnell Swett High School Pembroke, NC This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 20 Oct 2003 10:51:55 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: kingctr@BELLSOUTH.NET Subject: Re: Thank You MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Liz, The NC Martin Luther King Resource Center in Raleigh, NC produces an annual Civil Rights Heritage Tour by bus, and also use Eye on the Prize as a resource to stimulate discussion on the buses. We have found that the young people on our tour have very little knowledge of the Civil Rights Movement, and would benefit greatly from classroom/workshop activities prior to participating on the actual tour. I would greatly appreciate it if you would send a copy of your plan to me at the following address: Ruby M. Turner, Director Corporate & Public Relations NC Martin Luther King Resource Center Post Office Box 28244 Raleigh, NC 27611 Thank you for your support. Peace, prayers, and wisdom, Ruby > > From: Elizabeth Morrison > Date: 2003/10/20 Mon AM 09:52:55 EDT > To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU > Subject: Re: Thank You > > Hi Susan! My name is Liz Morrison - I teach at PSHS in Manchester, MO (suburb of St. Louis) - I have a lesson plan in which I have the students become particiate in Freedom Summer - I teach them non-violent tactics and utilize video from "Eyes on the Prize" - it is great! Anyway - if you are interested send me your school adress and I'll send you the plan! Liz > > >>> s_maynor@BELLSOUTH.NET - 10/19/03 4:00 PM >>> > Thanks to all who responded for help in teaching about the CRM.. Please keep the helpful letters coming in. It is difficult to teach about this movement to students who believe in fighting. To not fight back is not something they would ever think of doing. I have received many helpful ideas, all of which I will try. > > Susan Maynor > Purnell Swett High School > Pembroke, NC > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 20 Oct 2003 11:13:53 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Sue Olesiuk Subject: "The Plan" Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Disposition: inline I'd be most appreciative if you could send me "the plan" you use. We have = the "Eyes on the Prize" video set here, thank goodness. Gratefully, Sue Sue Heath Olesiuk Instructor ABTCC 340 Victoria Road Asheville NC 28801 (828) 254-1921 x191 solesiuk@abtech.edu Office Hours: MWF, 1-1:50 T/TH, 10:30-11:20 a.m. 325 Elm Building This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 20 Oct 2003 12:10:14 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charity Pitton Subject: Re: Teaching ideas - video In-Reply-To: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_00B1_01C39703.1E784380" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_00B1_01C39703.1E784380 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Sorry for the delay in reply - wanted to make sure I had the right information. It is simply titled "Ruby Bridges." It was a made-for-TV Disney movie. -----Original Message----- From: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement [mailto:CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU]On Behalf Of Pete Haro Sent: Friday, October 17, 2003 2:57 PM To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU Subject: Re: Teaching ideas - video Dear Charity: What is the title of the Ruby Bridges video you are mentioning? Sincerely, Pete Haro. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_00B1_01C39703.1E784380 Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Re: Teaching ideas - video

So= rry for the delay in reply – wanted to make sure I had the right information. = It is simply titled “Ruby Bridges.” It was a made-for-TV Disney = movie.

 

-----Original Message-----
From: Teaching the Civil = Rights Movement [mailto:CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU]On Behalf Of Pete Haro
Sent: Friday, October 17, = 2003 2:57 PM
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU
Subject: Re: Teaching = ideas - video

 

Dear Charity: What is the title = of the Ruby Bridges video you are mentioning? Sincerely, Pete Haro.

 
<= /p>

This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_00B1_01C39703.1E784380-- ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 20 Oct 2003 12:07:36 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Elizabeth Morrison Subject: Re: Thank You Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Disposition: inline Hi Ruby! I'll send it to you! Liz This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 10:01:02 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Charles Payne Subject: integration, etc Comments: cc: thavolia@duke.edu Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

First, I apologize for taking so long to respond to some of these messages.  I had a family situation crop up that I had to deal with.   I=92ll try to catch up in the next few days.


1.  Re Freedom summer, I have just learned that there is going to a website tracking various commemorations of the 40th anniversary:
http://jecf.org/freedomsummer/freedomsummer2004.  They plan activities all over the country.  There is not a lot of info there now, but keep an eye on the site.


2. I=92ve been struggling with some of the =93What was the goal?=94 question= s that some of you are raising.  


I assumed all students would agree that integration is/was a good idea. While that is largely true, students from Birmingham (none of them Caucasian) consistently state that they think integration was the wrong way to go: The races will never get along, and so the proper solution is a better attempt at =93separate yet equal=94 rather than a useless attempt a= t everyone getting along.

Hence the paradox that confuses me. In Birmingham, a place where (in my possibly ill-informed picture of events) so many blacks suffered to achieve=85?=85the children of that generation would come out so strongly in favor of segregation. I have assumed they were struggling to=20 achieve
equality/integration, two terms that my Caucasian brain uses somewhat interchangeably. Do I have an incorrect view of what they were trying to achieve with the CRM in Birmingham? Is this just one of those swings of the pendulum to the opposite extreme? Is it truly what my students imply =96weariness of attempting the perhaps impossible?

Thanks.
Charity Pitton

"To the person, and I obviously have not interviewed everyone in
Mississippi who  lived through the movement, they say "Inagrayshon" was
the "wust thang dat coulda eva hapn to black folk." Of course they have
living history and 20/20 hindsight to help them arrive at this
conclusion and I imagine the children in Birmingham came to the=20 same
conclusion via real world experiences."

Curtis Austin



I feel about integration/segregation  the way I feel about nonviolence/violence  - a dichotomy that gained great currency but which doesn=92t do much to capture the complexity of Black thought, another case in which the terminology that was favored by a certain elite became generally used to the detriment of clarity.     By and large, when Black people said =93integration,=94 I think they meant something like =93the end of white supremacy=94 or at least =93the end of racial disadvantage.=94   The people who meant it literally would certainly include the NAACP and I suspect certain Christian and pacifist groups, including pre-1960 CORE.   The other thing that seems pretty clear is that not everyone who advocated integration had fully anticipated its consequences.   One of the most important discussion=92s in Bill Chafe=92s Civilities and Civil Liberties is hi= s discussion of what happened when Greensboro finally got some desegregation .   Blacks found that in every case , whites controlled the process of desegregation in such a way that the outcomes were never what Blacks had anticipated, leading some Blacks to search for more radical solutions.   In his dissertation last year , Joseph Crespino (Stanford, History) had some language for this that I really liked =96strategic accomodation.   Southern leadership didn=92t actually desegregte instituttions so much as they strategically accommodated movement demands in a way that preserved the essence of white privilege.   Another discussion that I find useful is David Cecelski=92s discussion of how the blacks of Hyde county, NC fought the desegregation  of their schools once they understood what desegregation was going to mean in fact  =96 the destruction of the schools with which they identified. . 

At a conference a few years ago, I heard Connie Curry of Sncc say that young people are wrong when they think that the movement was all about integration.   The goal of the movement was gain access to American institutions and that couldn=92t happen under the kind of segregation that held sway in the South in 1960.   An audience that consisted largely of SNCC people seemed to be in agreement with her.   I think what I have most often over the years heard from Mississippi activists was that th  point of the movement was to give people more control over their lives, voice in the decisions that affected them.   In a particular context, integration might be a part of the process but that doesn=92t make it the point.

If you look at Black attitudes toward housing (data can be found in Doug Massey=92s American Apartheid), the trend has been that Blacks have overwhelmeing endorsed integrated neighborhoods, but what was really important to them is that their neighborhoods support a certain quality of life. 

I have heard conversations like that among Charity Pitton=92s students and I haven=92t figured out yet what they mean.    I think the notion that the situation between the races is helpless is relatively new.   I=92m not expert on this but my memory was that from the 1940's through th e1970's Blacks were generally optimistic about the racial futur ,with some flattening after that.    If someone knows this data, please help. 



What follows is an excerpt from an article I=92m writing on Brown that touches on some of these issues: (from =93 The Whole United States is Southern!!:=94Brown v. Board and the Mystification of Race,=94 Journal of American History, forthcoming. )
           African American attitudes toward racial separation have always been complex.   The Southern racial system, in fact, allowed for a great deal of personal contact across racial lines, perhaps more so than in other parts of the country;  it just had to be contact on terms defined by white people.  Southern cities, for example, traditionally had lower indices of housing segregation than their Northern counterparts.  Jokesters were quick to point out that all the light-skinned Black people walking around were proof that plenty of integration was  happening after dark.   Part of Gunnar Myrdal=92s optimism about American race relations was based  on his finding that while Southern whites were most concerned with preventing social equality  -- which, in this context, can be taken to mean unregulated cross-racial contact =96 Blacks were primarily concerned with access to jobs, housing, and schooling and least concerned with anything like social inequality.     The first Black students to desegregate schools were frequently chided for their disloyalty to Black schools.   One 1955 poll found only 53% of Southern blacks in agreement with Brown.    In his study of Black working class protests over segregated public transportation in WWII Birmingham,   Robin Kelley concludes that segregation in and of itself was not the key issue:
Sitting with whites, for most black riders, was never a critical issue: rather, African Americans wanted more space for themselves, they wanted to receive equitable treatment, they wanted to be personally treated with respect and dignity, they wanted to be heard and possibly understood, they wanted to get to work on time, and above all, they wanted to to exercise power over institutions that controlled them or on which they were dependent. 1
The best way to think of it in the post World War II context is that Blacks were virtually all opposed to the stigma that was involved in segregation and to segregation insofar as it was used as a tool =96 often a very important tool =96 to prevent access to a decent life but that did not always translate into any deep commitment to integration as an end in itself.  2
Within the leadership of the NAACP itself, however, one could find a very strict focus on ending segregation itself, so much so that Du Bois accused them of myopia.  The essays he wrote during the 1930s calling on Blacks to continue to build strong-race-based institutions even as they continued to assail segregation might have been regarded as unexceptional in the sense that they described how most Blacks were living their lives anyway but they led to his being drummed out of the organization he had helped create.   Like DuBois, the NAACP=92s membership often saw a more problematic side to a strict focus on defeating segregation.   In the years leading up to Brown, Adam Fairclough contends, =93NAACP officials had a hard time convincing their members that integration would be more effective than equalization in obtaining a better education for their children.=94   When some expressed fear for the future of Black colleges, Walter White, the organization=92s Executive Secretary, replied that Blacks needed to =93give up the little kingdoms=94 that had developed under segregation.  When others pointed out that integration often led to Black children feeling isolated and alienated, one NAACP lawyer said that if integration led to some Black children dropping out, that would have to be borne, since there were casualties in all social change.   When it was suggested that Black teachers and principals might find themselves unemployed in desegregated systems, the leadership responded that that, too, was the price of change.    Robert Carter , one of the NAACP lawyers who argued Brown , noted that the legal team =93really had the feeling that segregation itself was the evil =96 and not a symptom of the deeper evil of racism....The box we were in was segregation itself, and most of the nation saw it that way, too. =933
If that was true of most of the nation, it is not clear that it was true of most of the nation=92s Black people, either before or after the decision.    Initial reactions among Blacks ranged widely.  While Thurgood Marshall was saying that segregated schools could be stamped out in five years -- although he expected it to take a lot more lawsuits -- and Ralph Ellison was seeing the decision as opening a =93wonderful world of possibilities =93 for children,=94 a  New York Times reporter was clearly surprised at the lack of enthusiasm in the Black neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. the day after the opinion was delivered.  He entitled his story  =93Capital=92s Negroes Slow in Reacting.=94  According to Richard Kluger, that wasn=92t unusual. The mood in many Black communities was muted and wary.  One Black columnist said of Memphis that AThere was no general >hallelujah=3D >tis done=3D hullabaloo on Beale Street over the Supreme= Court=3Ds admission that segregation= in the public schools is wrong.  Beale Streeters are sorta skeptical= about giving out with cheers yet.@= 4 
One way in which Brown really was a milestone is that it marked the= hegemony of a certain way of thinking about race.   The Civil= Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965 were regarded by some Americans as having= essentially solved America=92s racial problems, or at least the black-white= component of it.   The immediate declaring of Brown to be= a major turning point bespeaks a similar  triumphalism.   To= the scuffling folks on America=92s Beale Streets, who had to meet the Man= the day after Brown, just as they had the day before, it may not= have been so clear just what Brown was going to do for= them.   


Departments of African American Studies and History
226 Carr Bldg., Box 90719
Duke University
Durham, NC 27708
919-684-5764 -phone
919-681-7670 - fax This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Tue, 21 Oct 2003 20:17:03 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kristine Boeke Subject: Re: separatism MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0047_01C39810.4A76BC60" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0047_01C39810.4A76BC60 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable On a related note to the integration discussion, I was wondering how = people what people have found regarding black power groups at the local = level and the issue of separatism.=20 I have found in Texas that in spite of separatist ideologies and = rhetoric that black power (and Chicano and white women's liberationists) = groups often worked in coalition with other groups, but only on the = condition that the terms and working conditions were equitable. The way = I have been perceiving it (and please correct me if you think I'm wrong, = or you have seen other experiences), interracial activity actually = continued under black power groups, only it was through equitable terms. = Of course they didn't join together with white groups that were = incapable of maintaining equitable terms, but they did join with white = groups that were able (such as white radical students) or willing to = try. When they found the working terms unequal, they just quit. Have other people found that separatist groups were willing to work in = what I have called separatist coalitions at the local level (or = national, for that matter)? Thanks, Kristine Boeke Ph.D. Candidate University of Notre Dame This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0047_01C39810.4A76BC60 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
  On a related note to the integration = discussion, I was=20 wondering how people what people have found regarding black power groups = at the=20 local level and the issue of separatism.
 
I have found in Texas that in spite of separatist = ideologies=20 and rhetoric that black power (and Chicano and white women's = liberationists)=20 groups often worked in coalition with other groups, but only on the = condition=20 that the terms and working conditions were equitable.  The way I = have been=20 perceiving it (and please correct me if you think I'm wrong, or you have = seen=20 other experiences), interracial activity actually continued under black = power=20 groups, only it was through equitable terms.  Of course they didn't = join=20 together with white groups that were incapable of maintaining equitable = terms,=20 but they did join with white groups that were able (such as white = radical=20 students) or willing to try.  When they found the working terms = unequal,=20 they just quit.
 
Have other people found that separatist groups were = willing to=20 work in what I have called separatist coalitions at the local level (or=20 national, for that matter)?
 
Thanks,
Kristine Boeke
Ph.D. Candidate
University of Notre Dame
This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_0047_01C39810.4A76BC60-- ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 23 Oct 2003 07:03:09 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Kelly Navies Subject: Re: integration, etc MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_003B_01C39933.B7653170" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_003B_01C39933.B7653170 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Greetings All, Dr. Payne, thank you for the insightful comments on the = segregation/desegregation issue. As an oral historian, I have = interviewed dozens of African Americans on this topic and as you so = aptly put it, their responses reflect a deep complexity of black = thought. No one wants to return to the humiliating conditions of legal = segregation, but most are nostalgic for what they remember ( and here = remember is a key term) as strong community-based schools, businesses, = and other institutions.=20 Henry Louis Gates addresses this quite poignantly in his memoir, Colored = People, when he writes, "everybody colored was devoted to Howard High = School. They liked the teachers, they liked the principal, they liked = the building and the basketball team. They liked its dignity and pride. = They did not like its worn-down textbooks, the ones sent up by the board = of education when the white schools got tired of them or when they were = outdated. Other than that, Howard High was quite fine, thank you very = much, your ticket to ride if you worked hard enough." (pg 91-92)=20 Indeed, there are many other such references in this book.=20 On a more personal note, my father would often brag that his segregated = schools in St. Louis, MO were taught by black Ph.D's ( of course, this = was itself one of the results of the limited opportunities afforded = professional blacks under segregation) and that when his family moved to = Detroit, MI where the schools were integrated, he was far beyond other = students his own age. As an aside, it's ironic that in our public schools today, ( I have = taught in both public and private high schools) students are lucky to = have books at all. And when they do, there generally are not enough for = students to take home. This is particularly true here in the Baltimore = City Public School District.=20 Best, Kelly Navies Baltimore, MD ----- Original Message -----=20 From: Charles Payne=20 To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTSERV.CUNY.EDU=20 Sent: Tuesday, October 21, 2003 10:01 AM Subject: integration, etc First, I apologize for taking so long to respond to some of these = messages. I had a family situation crop up that I had to deal with. = I'll try to catch up in the next few days.=20 1. Re Freedom summer, I have just learned that there is going to a = website tracking various commemorations of the 40th anniversary: http://jecf.org/freedomsummer/freedomsummer2004. They plan activities = all over the country. There is not a lot of info there now, but keep an = eye on the site.=20 2. I've been struggling with some of the "What was the goal?" = questions that some of you are raising. =20 I assumed all students would agree that integration is/was a good = idea. While that is largely true, students from Birmingham (none of them = Caucasian) consistently state that they think integration was the wrong = way to go: The races will never get along, and so the proper solution is = a better attempt at "separate yet equal" rather than a useless attempt = at everyone getting along. Hence the paradox that confuses me. In Birmingham, a place where (in = my possibly ill-informed picture of events) so many blacks suffered to = achieve.?.the children of that generation would come out so strongly in = favor of segregation. I have assumed they were struggling to achieve equality/integration, two terms that my Caucasian brain uses somewhat = interchangeably. Do I have an incorrect view of what they were trying to = achieve with the CRM in Birmingham? Is this just one of those swings of = the pendulum to the opposite extreme? Is it truly what my students imply = -weariness of attempting the perhaps impossible? Thanks. Charity Pitton "To the person, and I obviously have not interviewed everyone in Mississippi who lived through the movement, they say "Inagrayshon" = was the "wust thang dat coulda eva hapn to black folk." Of course they = have living history and 20/20 hindsight to help them arrive at this conclusion and I imagine the children in Birmingham came to the same conclusion via real world experiences." Curtis Austin I feel about integration/segregation the way I feel about = nonviolence/violence - a dichotomy that gained great currency but which = doesn't do much to capture the complexity of Black thought, another case = in which the terminology that was favored by a certain elite became = generally used to the detriment of clarity. By and large, when Black = people said "integration," I think they meant something like "the end of = white supremacy" or at least "the end of racial disadvantage." The = people who meant it literally would certainly include the NAACP and I = suspect certain Christian and pacifist groups, including pre-1960 CORE. = The other thing that seems pretty clear is that not everyone who = advocated integration had fully anticipated its consequences. One of = the most important discussion's in Bill Chafe's Civilities and Civil = Liberties is his discussion of what happened when Greensboro finally got = some desegregation . Blacks found that in every case , whites = controlled the process of desegregation in such a way that the outcomes = were never what Blacks had anticipated, leading some Blacks to search = for more radical solutions. In his dissertation last year , Joseph = Crespino (Stanford, History) had some language for this that I really = liked -strategic accomodation. Southern leadership didn't actually = desegregte instituttions so much as they strategically accommodated = movement demands in a way that preserved the essence of white privilege. = Another discussion that I find useful is David Cecelski's discussion = of how the blacks of Hyde county, NC fought the desegregation of their = schools once they understood what desegregation was going to mean in = fact - the destruction of the schools with which they identified. . =20 At a conference a few years ago, I heard Connie Curry of Sncc say that = young people are wrong when they think that the movement was all about = integration. The goal of the movement was gain access to American = institutions and that couldn't happen under the kind of segregation that = held sway in the South in 1960. An audience that consisted largely of = SNCC people seemed to be in agreement with her. I think what I have = most often over the years heard from Mississippi activists was that th = point of the movement was to give people more control over their lives, = voice in the decisions that affected them. In a particular context, = integration might be a part of the process but that doesn't make it the = point.=20 If you look at Black attitudes toward housing (data can be found in = Doug Massey's American Apartheid), the trend has been that Blacks have = overwhelmeing endorsed integrated neighborhoods, but what was really = important to them is that their neighborhoods support a certain quality = of life. =20 I have heard conversations like that among Charity Pitton's students = and I haven't figured out yet what they mean. I think the notion that = the situation between the races is helpless is relatively new. I'm not = expert on this but my memory was that from the 1940's through th e1970's = Blacks were generally optimistic about the racial futur ,with some = flattening after that. If someone knows this data, please help. =20 What follows is an excerpt from an article I'm writing on Brown that = touches on some of these issues: (from " The Whole United States is = Southern!!:"Brown v. Board and the Mystification of Race," Journal of = American History, forthcoming. ) African American attitudes toward racial separation have = always been complex. The Southern racial system, in fact, allowed for = a great deal of personal contact across racial lines, perhaps more so = than in other parts of the country; it just had to be contact on terms = defined by white people. Southern cities, for example, traditionally = had lower indices of housing segregation than their Northern = counterparts. Jokesters were quick to point out that all the = light-skinned Black people walking around were proof that plenty of = integration was happening after dark. Part of Gunnar Myrdal's = optimism about American race relations was based on his finding that = while Southern whites were most concerned with preventing social = equality -- which, in this context, can be taken to mean unregulated = cross-racial contact - Blacks were primarily concerned with access to = jobs, housing, and schooling and least concerned with anything like = social inequality. The first Black students to desegregate schools = were frequently chided for their disloyalty to Black schools. One 1955 = poll found only 53% of Southern blacks in agreement with Brown. In = his study of Black working class protests over segregated public = transportation in WWII Birmingham, Robin Kelley concludes that = segregation in and of itself was not the key issue: Sitting with whites, for most black riders, was never a critical = issue: rather, African Americans wanted more space for themselves, they = wanted to receive equitable treatment, they wanted to be personally = treated with respect and dignity, they wanted to be heard and possibly = understood, they wanted to get to work on time, and above all, they = wanted to to exercise power over institutions that controlled them or on = which they were dependent. 1=20 The best way to think of it in the post World War II context is that = Blacks were virtually all opposed to the stigma that was involved in = segregation and to segregation insofar as it was used as a tool - often = a very important tool - to prevent access to a decent life but that did = not always translate into any deep commitment to integration as an end = in itself. 2 Within the leadership of the NAACP itself, however, one could find a = very strict focus on ending segregation itself, so much so that Du Bois = accused them of myopia. The essays he wrote during the 1930s calling on = Blacks to continue to build strong-race-based institutions even as they = continued to assail segregation might have been regarded as = unexceptional in the sense that they described how most Blacks were = living their lives anyway but they led to his being drummed out of the = organization he had helped create. Like DuBois, the NAACP's membership = often saw a more problematic side to a strict focus on defeating = segregation. In the years leading up to Brown, Adam Fairclough = contends, "NAACP officials had a hard time convincing their members that = integration would be more effective than equalization in obtaining a = better education for their children." When some expressed fear for the = future of Black colleges, Walter White, the organization's Executive = Secretary, replied that Blacks needed to "give up the little kingdoms" = that had developed under segregation. When others pointed out that = integration often led to Black children feeling isolated and alienated, = one NAACP lawyer said that if integration led to some Black children = dropping out, that would have to be borne, since there were casualties = in all social change. When it was suggested that Black teachers and = principals might find themselves unemployed in desegregated systems, the = leadership responded that that, too, was the price of change. Robert = Carter , one of the NAACP lawyers who argued Brown , noted that the = legal team "really had the feeling that segregation itself was the evil = - and not a symptom of the deeper evil of racism....The box we were in = was segregation itself, and most of the nation saw it that way, too. "3 If that was true of most of the nation, it is not clear that it was = true of most of the nation's Black people, either before or after the = decision. Initial reactions among Blacks ranged widely. While = Thurgood Marshall was saying that segregated schools could be stamped = out in five years -- although he expected it to take a lot more lawsuits = -- and Ralph Ellison was seeing the decision as opening a "wonderful = world of possibilities " for children," a New York Times reporter was = clearly surprised at the lack of enthusiasm in the Black neighborhoods = of Washington, D.C. the day after the opinion was delivered. He = entitled his story "Capital's Negroes Slow in Reacting." According to = Richard Kluger, that wasn't unusual. The mood in many Black communities = was muted and wary. One Black columnist said of Memphis that AThere was = no general >hallelujah=3D >tis done=3D hullabaloo on Beale Street over = the Supreme Court=3Ds admission that segregation in the public schools = is wrong. Beale Streeters are sorta skeptical about giving out with = cheers yet.@ 4 =20 One way in which Brown really was a milestone is that it marked the = hegemony of a certain way of thinking about race. The Civil Rights = Acts of 1964 and 1965 were regarded by some Americans as having = essentially solved America's racial problems, or at least the = black-white component of it. The immediate declaring of Brown to be a = major turning point bespeaks a similar triumphalism. To the scuffling = folks on America's Beale Streets, who had to meet the Man the day after = Brown, just as they had the day before, it may not have been so clear = just what Brown was going to do for them. =20 Departments of African American Studies and History 226 Carr Bldg., Box 90719 Duke University Durham, NC 27708 919-684-5764 -phone 919-681-7670 - fax This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please = visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources = for teaching U.S. History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_003B_01C39933.B7653170 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable
Greetings All,
 
Dr. Payne, thank you for the insightful = comments on=20 the segregation/desegregation issue. As an oral historian, I have = interviewed=20 dozens of African Americans on this topic and as you so aptly put it, = their=20 responses reflect a deep complexity of black thought. No one wants to = return to=20 the humiliating conditions of legal segregation, but most are nostalgic = for what=20 they remember ( and here remember is a key term) as strong = community-based=20 schools, businesses, and other institutions.
 
Henry Louis Gates addresses this quite = poignantly=20 in his memoir, Colored People, when he writes, "everybody colored was = devoted to=20 Howard High School. They liked the teachers, they liked the principal, = they=20 liked the building and the basketball team. They liked its dignity and = pride.=20 They did not like its worn-down textbooks, the ones sent up by the board = of=20 education when the white schools got tired of them or when they were=20 outdated. Other than that, Howard High was quite fine, thank you = very much,=20 your ticket to ride if you worked hard enough." (pg 91-92)
 
Indeed, there are many other such = references in=20 this book.
 
On a more personal note, my father = would often brag=20 that  his segregated schools in St. Louis, MO were taught by black = Ph.D's (=20 of course, this was itself one of the results of the limited = opportunities=20 afforded professional blacks under segregation) and that when his family = moved=20 to Detroit, MI where the schools were integrated, he was far beyond = other=20 students his own age.
 
As an aside, it's ironic that in our = public schools=20 today, ( I have taught in both public and private high schools) students = are=20 lucky to have books at all. And when they do, there generally are not = enough for=20 students to take home. This is particularly true here in the Baltimore = City=20 Public School District.
 
Best,
 
Kelly Navies
Baltimore, MD
----- Original Message -----
From:=20 Charles = Payne=20
To: CIVILRIGHTS@ASHP.LISTS= ERV.CUNY.EDU=20
Sent: Tuesday, October 21, 2003 = 10:01=20 AM
Subject: integration, etc



First, I apologize for taking so long to = respond to=20 some of these messages.  I had a family situation crop up that I = had to=20 deal with.   I=92ll try to catch up in the next few days.=20


1.  Re Freedom summer, I have just learned that there = is=20 going to a website tracking various commemorations of the 40th
= anniversary:
http://jecf.org/= freedomsummer/freedomsummer2004.  They plan activities all over the = country.  There is=20 not a lot of info there now, but keep an eye on the site. =


2. I=92ve=20 been struggling with some of the =93What was the goal?=94 questions = that some of=20 you are raising.  


I assumed all students = would agree=20 that integration is/was a good idea. While that is largely true, = students from=20 Birmingham (none of them Caucasian) consistently state that they think = integration was the wrong way to go: The races will never get along, = and so=20 the proper solution is a better attempt at =93separate yet equal=94 = rather than a=20 useless attempt at everyone getting along.

Hence the paradox = that=20 confuses me. In Birmingham, a place where (in my possibly ill-informed = picture=20 of events) so many blacks suffered to achieve=85?=85the children of = that=20 generation would come out so strongly in favor of segregation. I have = assumed=20 they were struggling to achieve
equality/integration, two terms = that my=20 Caucasian brain uses somewhat interchangeably. Do I have an incorrect = view of=20 what they were trying to achieve with the CRM in Birmingham? Is this = just one=20 of those swings of the pendulum to the opposite extreme? Is it truly = what my=20 students imply =96weariness of attempting the perhaps=20 impossible?

Thanks.
Charity Pitton

"To the = person, and=20 I obviously have not interviewed everyone in
Mississippi who  = lived=20 through the movement, they say "Inagrayshon" was
the "wust thang = dat coulda=20 eva hapn to black folk." Of course they have
living history and = 20/20=20 hindsight to help them arrive at this
conclusion and I imagine the = children=20 in Birmingham came to the same
conclusion via real world=20 experiences."

Curtis Austin



I feel about=20 integration/segregation  the way I feel about = nonviolence/violence =20 - a dichotomy that gained great currency but which doesn=92t do much = to capture=20 the complexity of Black thought, another case in which the terminology = that=20 was favored by a certain elite became generally used to the detriment = of=20 clarity.     By and large, when Black people said=20 =93integration,=94 I think they meant something like =93the end of = white supremacy=94=20 or at least =93the end of racial disadvantage.=94   The = people who meant=20 it literally would certainly include the NAACP and I suspect certain = Christian=20 and pacifist groups, including pre-1960 CORE.   The other = thing that=20 seems pretty clear is that not everyone who advocated integration had = fully=20 anticipated its consequences.   One of the most important=20 discussion=92s in Bill Chafe=92s Civilities and Civil Liberties = is his=20 discussion of what happened when Greensboro finally got some = desegregation=20 .   Blacks found that in every case , whites controlled the = process=20 of desegregation in such a way that the outcomes were never what = Blacks had=20 anticipated, leading some Blacks to search for more radical=20 solutions.   In his dissertation last year , Joseph Crespino = (Stanford, History) had some language for this that I really liked = =96strategic=20 accomodation.   Southern leadership didn=92t actually = desegregte=20 instituttions so much as they strategically accommodated movement = demands in a=20 way that preserved the essence of white privilege.   Another = discussion that I find useful is David Cecelski=92s discussion of how = the blacks=20 of Hyde county, NC fought the desegregation  of their schools = once they=20 understood what desegregation was going to mean in fact  =96 the=20 destruction of the schools with which they identified. .  =

At a=20 conference a few years ago, I heard Connie Curry of Sncc say that = young people=20 are wrong when they think that the movement was all about=20 integration.   The goal of the movement was gain access to = American=20 institutions and that couldn=92t happen under the kind of segregation = that held=20 sway in the South in 1960.   An audience that consisted = largely of=20 SNCC people seemed to be in agreement with her.   I think = what I=20 have most often over the years heard from Mississippi activists was = that=20 th  point of the movement was to give people more control over = their=20 lives, voice in the decisions that affected them.   In a = particular=20 context, integration might be a part of the process but that doesn=92t = make it=20 the point.

If you look at Black attitudes toward housing (data = can be=20 found in Doug Massey=92s American Apartheid), the trend has = been that=20 Blacks have overwhelmeing endorsed integrated neighborhoods, but what = was=20 really important to them is that their neighborhoods support a certain = quality=20 of life. 

I have heard conversations like that among = Charity=20 Pitton=92s students and I haven=92t figured out yet what they=20 mean.    I think the notion that the situation between = the=20 races is helpless is relatively new.   I=92m not expert on = this but my=20 memory was that from the 1940's through th e1970's Blacks were = generally=20 optimistic about the racial futur ,with some flattening after=20 that.    If someone knows this data, please help.  =



What follows is an excerpt from an article I=92m = writing on=20 Brown that touches on some of these issues: (from =93 The Whole = United=20 States is Southern!!:=94Brown v. Board and the Mystification of = Race,=94=20 Journal of American History, forthcoming.=20 )
           = African=20 American attitudes toward racial separation have always been=20 complex.   The Southern racial system, in fact, allowed for = a great=20 deal of personal contact across racial lines, perhaps more so than in = other=20 parts of the country;  it just had to be contact on terms defined = by=20 white people.  Southern cities, for example, traditionally had = lower=20 indices of housing segregation than their Northern counterparts.  = Jokesters were quick to point out that all the light-skinned Black = people=20 walking around were proof that plenty of integration was  = happening after=20 dark.   Part of Gunnar Myrdal=92s optimism about American = race=20 relations was based  on his finding that while Southern whites = were most=20 concerned with preventing social equality  -- which, in this = context, can=20 be taken to mean unregulated cross-racial contact =96 Blacks were = primarily=20 concerned with access to jobs, housing, and schooling and least = concerned with=20 anything like social inequality.     The first = Black=20 students to desegregate schools were frequently chided for their = disloyalty to=20 Black schools.   One 1955 poll found only 53% of Southern = blacks in=20 agreement with Brown.    In his study of Black working = class=20 protests over segregated public transportation in WWII = Birmingham,  =20 Robin Kelley concludes that segregation in and of itself was not the = key=20 issue:
Sitting with whites, for most black riders, was never a critical = issue:=20 rather, African Americans wanted more space for themselves, they = wanted to=20 receive equitable treatment, they wanted to be personally treated = with=20 respect and dignity, they wanted to be heard and possibly = understood, they=20 wanted to get to work on time, and above all, they wanted to to = exercise=20 power over institutions that controlled them or on which they were=20 dependent. 1 =
The=20 best way to think of it in the post World War II context is that = Blacks were=20 virtually all opposed to the stigma that was involved in segregation = and to=20 segregation insofar as it was used as a tool =96 often a very = important tool =96=20 to prevent access to a decent life but that did not always translate = into any=20 deep commitment to integration as an end in itself.  2
Within the leadership = of the NAACP=20 itself, however, one could find a very strict focus on ending = segregation=20 itself, so much so that Du Bois accused them of myopia.  The = essays he=20 wrote during the 1930s calling on Blacks to continue to build=20 strong-race-based institutions even as they continued to assail = segregation=20 might have been regarded as unexceptional in the sense that they = described how=20 most Blacks were living their lives anyway but they led to his being = drummed=20 out of the organization he had helped create.   Like DuBois, = the=20 NAACP=92s membership often saw a more problematic side to a strict = focus on=20 defeating segregation.   In the years leading up to Brown, = Adam=20 Fairclough contends, =93NAACP officials had a hard time convincing = their members=20 that integration would be more effective than equalization in = obtaining a=20 better education for their children.=94   When some = expressed fear for=20 the future of Black colleges, Walter White, the organization=92s = Executive=20 Secretary, replied that Blacks needed to =93give up the little = kingdoms=94 that=20 had developed under segregation.  When others pointed out that=20 integration often led to Black children feeling isolated and = alienated, one=20 NAACP lawyer said that if integration led to some Black children = dropping out,=20 that would have to be borne, since there were casualties in all social = change.   When it was suggested that Black teachers and = principals=20 might find themselves unemployed in desegregated systems, the = leadership=20 responded that that, too, was the price of change.    = Robert=20 Carter , one of the NAACP lawyers who argued Brown , noted that = the=20 legal team =93really had the feeling that segregation itself was the = evil =96 and=20 not a symptom of the deeper evil of racism....The box we were in was=20 segregation itself, and most of the nation saw it that way, too. = =933
If that was true of = most of the=20 nation, it is not clear that it was true of most of the nation=92s = Black people,=20 either before or after the decision.    Initial = reactions among=20 Blacks ranged widely.  While Thurgood Marshall was saying that = segregated=20 schools could be stamped out in five years -- although he expected it = to take=20 a lot more lawsuits -- and Ralph Ellison was seeing the decision as = opening a=20 =93wonderful world of possibilities =93 for children,=94 a  = New York Times=20 reporter was clearly surprised at the lack of enthusiasm in the = Black=20 neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. the day after the opinion was=20 delivered.  He entitled his story  =93Capital=92s Negroes = Slow in=20 Reacting.=94  According to Richard Kluger, that wasn=92t unusual. = The mood in=20 many Black communities was muted and wary.  One Black columnist = said of=20 Memphis that AThere was = no general=20 >hallelujah=3D >tis=20 done=3D hullabaloo on Beale = Street over the=20 Supreme Court=3Ds admission = that=20 segregation in the public schools is wrong.  Beale Streeters are = sorta=20 skeptical about giving out with cheers yet.@ 4 
One way in which Brown really was a = milestone is that=20 it marked the hegemony of a certain way of thinking about = race.  =20 The Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965 were regarded by some Americans = as=20 having essentially solved America=92s racial problems, or at least the = black-white component of it.   The immediate declaring of=20 Brown to be a major turning point bespeaks a similar =20 triumphalism.   To the scuffling folks on America=92s Beale = Streets,=20 who had to meet the Man the day after Brown, just as they had = the day=20 before, it may not have been so clear just what Brown was going = to do=20 for them.   


Departments of African American Studies and History
226 Carr Bldg., Box 90719
Duke University
Durham, NC 27708
919-684-5764 -phone
919-681-7670 - fax This forum is = sponsored by=20 History Matters--please visit our Web site at = http://historymatters.gmu.edu=20 for more resources for teaching U.S. = History. This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ------=_NextPart_000_003B_01C39933.B7653170-- ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 23 Oct 2003 13:11:35 -0700 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Robert White Subject: Will you help the Montgomery Improvement Association? MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Hello: My name is Robert White and I am the chairperson for the 50th Anniversary of the Montgomery Bus Boycott for the MIA. Ms. Tara White informed me of your various projects and I would like to know if you would be interested in assisting us in making this commemoration a success. Specifically, we are in the process of doing a book on the MIA entitled Let Us Rise Together and Build. If interested please let me know, ASAP. Once I hear from you, I will forward a copy of the table of contents to you. Also, if you could forward a vita, i would appreciate it. Got any questions? Hit me back of call at w 1800-392-5839 ext 215. __________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search http://shopping.yahoo.com This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Thu, 23 Oct 2003 15:04:11 -0700 Reply-To: plece@wou.edu Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Emily Plec Subject: Re: Will you help the Montgomery Improvement Association? MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Content-Disposition: inline Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Robert, If you're looking for materials directly related to the boycott, I believe S.T. Saffold, a professor at San Jose State University, wrote his dissertation and perhaps a book about Rosa Parks. You may consider contacting him through the sjsu.edu website. Also, Herbert Kohl has a wonderful chapter on how the boycott has been memorialized (problematically) in children's books in his volume titled "Should we Burn Babar?" Best of luck . . . Emily Plec, Ph.D. Department of Speech Communication Humanities Division Western Oregon University 345 N. Monmouth Ave. Monmouth, OR 97361 (503) 838-8819 plece@wou.edu ----- Original Message ----- From: Robert White Date: Thursday, October 23, 2003 1:11 pm Subject: Will you help the Montgomery Improvement Association? > Hello: > My name is Robert White and I am the chairperson for > the 50th Anniversary of the Montgomery Bus Boycott for > the MIA. Ms. Tara White informed me of your various > projects and I would like to know if you would be > interested in assisting us in making this > commemoration a success. Specifically, we are in the > process of doing a book on the MIA entitled Let Us > Rise Together and Build. If interested please let me > know, ASAP. Once I hear from you, I will forward a > copy of the table of contents to you. Also, if you > could forward a vita, i would appreciate it. > > Got any questions? Hit me back of call at w > 1800-392-5839 ext 215. > > __________________________________ > Do you Yahoo!? > The New Yahoo! Shopping - with improved product search > http://shopping.yahoo.com > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web > site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for > teaching U.S. History. > > This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 24 Oct 2003 16:09:13 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Perry Hall Subject: Comments on some previous points It has taken me a while to read the previous posts. I have enjoyed and learned much in the process. I thought I would make two comments relating to previous threads. First is my response to the the question of the role of the Brown decision in sparking white "backlash" > this "backlash thesis" about Brown further argues that Brown was > instrumental in the CRM mainly because it provoked the rise of massive > resistance in the South and effectively ended all efforts at Southern > racial moderation, which were clearly on the increase following the Second > World War. I wouldn't say that the Brown decision, in itself, sparked the southern backlash and resistance. What I think was critical was the leadership vacuum created by President Eisenhower's nearly public disavowal of the decision, and lack of any initiative to enforce it. Before Brown, post-World War II southern moderation was certainly on the rise. Had Eisenhower transcended his personal distaste for matters racial (as some argue Lyndon Johnson did in his term) and accepted the responsibility of articulating and enforcing the law of the land, that process of moderation would have been encouraged, and likely continued on its course. So perhaps it wasn't the Brown decision itself, but the combination of Brown and the Eisenhower administration's fumbling of the issue that allowed that reactionary, racist resistance to develop. Lack of national leadership allowed southern politicians the opportunity to organize and articulate the principles by which they would resist the threat of Brown; first with the Southern Manifesto, and later with the Citizens' Councils. In the wake of these developments the trends toward moderation were reversed. Perhaps ironically, it can also be argued that the hardening of white resistance was the factor that radicalized leadership and grassroots elements among blacks to the realization that a movement was necessary. Secondly, on the question of various ways of marking the "beginning"(s) of the movement, I would argue that a "critical mass" of potential activism that had accrued among younger southern blacks by 1960 was set-off in a chain reaction to the Greensboro sit-ins. I would certainly not seek to detract from or minimize the importance of earlier periods and forms of struggle. But it seems to me that Greensboro initiated a wave of activism that was unique in our history; involving nearly simultaneous, related and connected if not coordinated, grassroots mobilization in communities all over the south, and involving support activities in several other areas. Enjoying the conversation Perry Hall Department of African and Afro-American Studies University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (919)962-5746 FAX: (919)962-2694 Personal Fax: 702-974-7353 This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Fri, 24 Oct 2003 19:31:07 -0400 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: Jama Lazerow Subject: Comments on some previous points "Secondly, on the question of various ways of marking the "beginning"(s) of the movement, I would argue that a "critical mass" of potential activism that had accrued among younger southern blacks by 1960 was set-off in a chain reaction to the Greensboro sit-ins. I would certainly not seek to detract from or minimize the importance of earlier periods and forms of struggle. But it seems to me that Greensboro initiated a wave of activism that was unique in our history; involving nearly simultaneous, related and connected if not coordinated, grassroots mobilization in communities all pover the south, and involving support activities in several other areas." I must admit to having missed this part of the discussion -- I got on late -- a crucial and almost completely ignored phenomenon. I quite agree with Professor Hall's assessment of the RESULTS, though I don't think the sources are adequately accounted for here. It's quite notable how silent most texts (including those on the civil rights movement) are on this question. Even Aldon Morris, who traced the antecedent sit-ins of the late 50s, doesn't explain why Greensboro sparked what it did. And, there is a significant gap, obviously, between Brown/Montgomery/Little Rock/SCLC and the explosion that followed Feb. 1, 1960. Maybe the causal factors here are ultimately unknowable, but Greensboro did more than spark a sit-in movement; it really started "the Sixties." (Something similar happened among opponents of peace activists at about the same time -- described dramatically in Maurice Isserman's _If I Had a Hammer_.) Jama Lazerow Professor of History Wheelock College This forum is sponsored by History Matters--please visit our Web site at http://historymatters.gmu.edu for more resources for teaching U.S. History. ========================================================================= Date: Mon, 27 Oct 2003 00:38:21 -0500 Reply-To: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement Sender: Teaching the Civil Rights Movement From: "Newby, Robert" Subject: FW: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="----_=_NextPart_001_01C39C4C.884BF446" This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------_=_NextPart_001_01C39C4C.884BF446 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8" Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 VGhpcyBpcyB0aGUgYmlibGlvZ3JhcGh5IEkgbWVudGlvbmVkIGVhcmxpZXIgYXMgYSByZXN1bHQg b2YgYnJvd3NpbmcgdGhlICJsb2NhbCIgc2VjdGlvbiBvZiAgYm9va3N0b3JlcyBpbiBKYWNrc29u LCBNb250Z29tZXJ5LCBCaXJtaW5naGFtIGFuZCBvdGhlciBvdXRsZXRzLiAgVGhlc2UgcmVhZGlu 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