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“Under the Stars and Stripes.”

Although by 1919 radical and labor movements had been seriously weakened by the government’s repression and persecution during World War I, “loyalty” organizations and the U.S. Department of Justice used fears spawned by the Bolshevik revolution in Russia to prosecute a crusade against radicals, labor militants, or any person whose loyalty seemed suspect. This “Red Scare” focused especially on the foreign born, and thousands of immigrants were detained and hundreds deported. Daily representations of subversion and menace that appeared during the campaign, like this Bolshevik serpent in the Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper, carried a strong anti-immigrant message.

Source: Morgan, Philadelphia Inquirer, March 13, 1919—American Social History Project.